The paper focuses on the effect of both the aluminium alloy addition and microstructural inhomogeneties on the magnetic behaviour of soft magnetic materials tested at low frequencies. The IIPC material (base on the commercial Somaloy 1P powder) has been blended with different amounts of commercially aluminium alloy Alumix 321 (0, 5 and 10 wt %). Specimens with a different green density were obtained by pressing at a pressure in the range from 400 to 800 MPa. Different thermal treatments (in air or nitrogen at the maximum temperature of 500ºC for 30 min) were carried out on the evaluated systems. The microstructure investigation revealed that for materials with high aluminium alloy contents, pores are located nearby or around the aluminium alloy particles. The heat treatment regime resulted in a coarse-grained structure with a small number of inclusions within the grains and at the grain boundaries. The comparison of the results indicated that the magnetic properties were considerably dependent on the microstructural inhomogeneities.
R. Bidulský, J. Bidulská and M. Actis Grande
R. Bidulský, J. Bidulská and M. Actis Grande
The paper is focused on the role of the pressing pressure on the densification behaviour of PM aluminium alloys. Commercially aluminium based powders Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Fe and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sn were used as materials to be investigated. The apparent density of the powder mixes was determined according to MPIF St. 04. A set of cylinder test specimen 55x10x10 mm3 was uniaxially pressed in a floating hardened steel die. Compaction pressures ranged from 50 MPa up to 700 MPa. Considering the densification of metal powders in uniaxial compaction, quantification of aluminium compaction behaviour was performed. The compressibility behaviour was evaluated, considering the effect on specimens, as well as on their microstructure. The development of compressibility values with pressing pressure enables to characterize the effect of particles geometry and matrix plasticity on the compaction process.
J. Bidulská, I. Pokorný, T. Kvačkaj, R. Bidulský and M. Grande
Study of the High-Temperature Behaviour of Aluminium Alloy En Aw 2014
The high-temperature behaviour of aluminium alloy EN AW 2014 was investigated in a wide range of deformation temperatures and strain rates. The influence of strain rate and temperature on the peak stress was analysed using the conventional constitutive equation (relating strain rate, flow stress, and temperature) and by means of precise definition of the peak stress value, in the non-linear regression model. Moreover, a study on apparent activation energy of EN AW 2014 stabilized by zirconium was carried out using Arrhenius-type plot. The stress-strain curves exhibit rapid increase up to the peak value followed by a gradual softening up to the material fracture, without the steady state usually observed before the fracture. In terms of formability maps, the presented experimental results exhibit a decrease of ductility, respectively with an increase of strain rate and a decrease of temperature, respectively.
R. Pernis, J. Bidulská, T. Kvačarkaj and I. Pokorný
Application of The Torsion Test in Calculating The Extrusion Force
The paper deals with the calculation of the extrusion force using the results of the torsion test of aluminium alloy EN AW-2014. The mathematical model for the calculation of the extrusion force requires the knowledge of the functional relationship between the yield stress and the temperature, the deformation and the deformation rate. Based on the proposed mathematical model for the calculation of the yield stress, the functional relationship was derived to determine the extrusion force in the hot extrusion of semi-products of aluminium alloy EN AW-2014.
T. Kvačkaj, R. Kočiško, J. Tiža, J. Bidulská, A. Kováčová, R. Bidulský, J. Bacsó and M. Vlado
The aluminium alloy with chemical conception AlMgSi prepared by PM (powder metallurgy) technology was used. The experiments such as a ring and compression test, ECAR (equal channel angular rolling) for determination of friction coefficient, stress-strain curves and material workability based on analytical methods (Freudenthal, Cockcroft-Latham and normalized Cockcroft-Latham criteria) were performed. Numerical simulations of sample processed by ECAR was carried out by a software Deform 3D with focus on the description of stress, strain fields and workability criteria (Cockcroft-Latham and normalized Cockcroft-Latham). The prediction of fracture formations in a real ECAR sample during processing conditions was also done.
T. Kvačkaj, A. Kováčová, J. Bidulská, R. Bidulský and R. Kočičko
In this study, static, dynamic and tribological properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) copper were investigated in detail. In order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour at different strain rates, OFHC copper was tested using two devices resulting in static and dynamic regimes. Moreover, the copper was subjected to two different processing methods, which made possible to study the influence of structure. The study of strain rate and microstructure was focused on progress in the mechanical properties after tensile tests. It was found that the strain rate is an important parameter affecting mechanical properties of copper. The ultimate tensile strength increased with the strain rate increasing and this effect was more visible at high strain rates
J. Bidulská, T. Kvačkaj, I. Pokorný, R. Bidulský and M. Actis Grande
The main aim of this paper is to investigate, by means of comparison of experimental studies and mathematical models, the evolution of porosity as consequence of pressing, sintering and ECAPping an aluminium based powder (6xxx). After applying the compacting pressure, specimens were dewaxed in a ventilated furnace at 400º for 60 min. Sintering was carried out in a vacuum furnace at 610ºC for 30 min. The specimens were then ECAPed for 1 pass. The 2-dimensional quantitative image analysis was carried out by means of SEM and OM for the evaluation of the aforementioned characteristics. Results show the effect of processing parameters on the fracture/microstructure behaviour of the studied aluminium PM alloy. Quantitative image analysis, as well as fractographic interpretation and microstructure identification of weak sites in the studied aluminium PM alloy, provide a reliable and reproducible statistical procedure for the identification of the critical pore sizes.
A. Kováčová, T. Kvačkaj, R. Bidulský, J. Bidulská, R. Kočiško, J. Dutkiewicz and L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska
The present paper deals with a study on formation of specific substructural features in OFHC copper processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) considering different strain rate conditions. Since two mechanical tensile testing equipments were being used, strain rate response could be studied in a wide range (both in static and dynamic regimes). Moreover, the copper before tensile testing was subjected to drawing and ECAP, separately, which allows to study the influence of both structural and substructural features (CG vs. UFG structure). Considering the static regime, it was found that UFG materials have advanced properties, showing higher strength and ductility in comparison to their CG counterparts. However, this is valid only to the critical value of the strain rate. In the dynamic regime, mathematical linearized results imply that ultimate tensile strength in samples processed by ECAP increases twice every 10 s−1 rising, however, they lost approximately the same plastic properties than samples after drawing. Differences in the progress of mechanical properties are related to specific structural and substructural features evolved in the material during ECAP processing. Above mentioned features were studied in detail by methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).