Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) are recognized for their deleterious effect on the environment and immunity where subsequently compromised immune response affects the susceptibility to the potential parasitic infections. This study examined the host cytokine response after heavy metal intoxication (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and subsequent Ascaris suum infection in BALB/c mice. Pb modulated murine immune response towards the Th2 type of response (delineated by IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine production) what was also dominant for the outcome of A. suum infection. Chronic intoxication with Pb caused a more intensive development of the parasite infection. Cd stimulated the Th1 immune response what was associated with increase in IFN-γ production and reduction of larvae present in the liver of intoxicated mice. The larval burden was also low in mice intoxicated with Hg. This was probably not related to the biased Th1/Th2 type of immune response, but rather to the bad host conditions caused by mercury toxicity and high level of pro-cachectic cytokine TNF-α.
J. Pipiková, I. Papajová, J. Šoltys, I. Schusterová, D. Kočišová and A. Toháthyová
The occurrence of parasitic infections among the children, dogs and its association with soil contamination in two villages with different hygiene level standards were analysed. Infections were present in both examined localities, but in the village with higher living standard, a better personal and communal hygiene level and better dogs care a lower occurrence of parasitic germs in soil was detected. High prevalence of protozoa and helminths was observed not only within canine population but also in children throughout the year in the village with lower hygiene and socio-economic standard. We have identified up to 12 taxa of parasites in 127 collected dogs’ excrements and mean prevalence was 71.65 %. The most frequent were eggs of family Ancylostomatidae and Ascaris spp., followed by Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Isospora spp. oocysts, eggs of Capillaria aerophila, Trichuris vulpis, Taenia type eggs, Dipylidium caninum, oocysts of Sarcocystis spp. and larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum. The soil samples collected near dwellings were highly contaminated. Two thirds of samples contained eggs for the most part of family Ancylostomatidae as well as genera Ascaris and Toxocara. Among the kids population helminth ova were present in 53.17 % of stool samples, where the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis diminuta and cysts of G. duodenalis were the most frequent. In contrast, parasitic diseases were not seen in children population living in the locality with common hygiene standard.
J. Bystrianska, I. Papajová, J. Šoltys and N. Sasáková
The aim of this study was to monitor the occurrence of the propagative stages of intestinal endoparasites in dog excrements collected within the close proximity of sandpits in an urban environment (Košice, Slovakia) and to determine the level of sandpits contamination with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). A total of 201 dog faecal samples were examined for the presence of helminth eggs with 10.95 % of the samples being positive. In faeces the most prevalent eggs were those of Toxocara canis (7.46 %). The contamination of sand with STH eggs in 84 sandpits was also investigated. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21.43 % of the sandpits. The eggs from the family Ancylostomatidae and Toxascaris leonina were also present. Taenia type eggs and Trichuris sp. eggs occurred less frequently. In some samples, not only monoinfection but also co-infection with eggs of 2‒3 helminth species were detected. In conclusion, the environmental contamination of sandpits with STHs eggs might pose a significant threat to the public health.