This paper presents the analysis of air pollution monitoring and evaluation results in the center of Riga City. The air quality reports have pointed out that road traffic and road infrastructure are the main issues of air pollution in the center of Riga. However, none of the reports validated this assumption considering actual traffic flow data. In the present article, the air pollution data have been collected and analyzed in the context with traffic flow. The statistical analysis of both the air pollution and traffic flow data was performed and the correlation between them was established and evaluated. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations for further improvements of the methodology of measurements necessary for successful air quality assessment in the urban areas and particularly in Riga city are given.
Congenital thumb hypoplasia is a rare deformity of the upper extremity. Incidence of thumb hypoplasia type I–V was 2–3 and type IIIb-V was 0.5–1 per 20 000 newborns per year in Latvia. The classification of thumb hypoplasia was created by Blauth in 1967 (type I to V). The base of the metacarpal bone is absent for hypoplasia type IIIb–V; therefore, toe-to hand transplantation is not recommended. A stable first carpometacarpal joint has been considered a mandatory factor for successful toe-to-hand transplantation. A technique for toe-to-hand transplantation for thumb hypoplasia type IIIb–V patients has been described in literature but overall results were not better than pollicisation. The aim of this study is to describe a new technique for thumb reconstruction with a second toe transfer with metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis, which can provide a 5-digit hand and restore the functionality of the thumb for thumb hypoplasia IIIb–V. Long-term follow up was done to evaluate the functions and aesthetics of the hands. A survey to evaluate aesthetical outcome for the transplantation method and pollicisation method was completed by 290 respondents. The overall population rated the aesthetic outcomes of the new transplantation method significantly higher than for pollicisation (p < 0.0001).
Creativity is an important component of the economy for modern cities, and necessary condition for it is the qualitative understanding of the economic theory science. In the global competition, it plays an important role for the economic growth dynamics, which is directly related to human resource role in the modern economy. The competitiveness of the territories depends on their attractiveness to economically active individuals and the opportunities they provide with economic growth. When considering the creative and cultural industries as potential economic development factors in the urban economy, culture can be considered as a new stage in urban development based on quality of life, creativity, which provide a level of degree for balance and determine the stability of the growth potential. The development of supporting urban infrastructure is identified as one of the drivers for expansion of the cultural and recreational domains both for the political and economic development. They reflect the specific characteristics of each city, the competitiveness versus attractiveness potential, and demonstrate the potential shift from the environment for production to a potentially new consumer environment with a higher “symbolic value”. The creative industries today can serve as an urban development domain tool, creating a modern approach to economic activity in various sectors of the economy. The authors draw attention to the cluster link between creative and cultural industries in urban planning. The authors propose a methodology for assessing revenues and costs, as well as recommendations for the work of cultural organisations and institutions involved in creating a creative urban environment. The article presents data and modelling results of the economic impact calculations for two imagined cities in order to theoretically approbate the methodology, which would help assess the socio-economic effect of the development of certain clusters. The aim of the research is to identify the impact of culture and creativity on the economy of city. The calculated information for decision makers would help formulate recommendations, evaluate potential developments of the urban environment, assist in planning and networking in urban agglomerations, based on clusters of creative and cultural industries, as the post-industrial city needs to make changes in order to achieve economic growth. The development of urban cluster of creative and cultural industries has a certain multiplicative effect, i.e., impact on the development of other types of economic activity.
Radial forearm flap is a gold standard for oral soft tissue defect reconstruction after tumour ablative surgery of oral cancer in advanced stages. The main disadvantage of this flap is donor site morbidity. The goal of our study was to show versatility of lateral arm flap in 34 cases with different oral defects that were reconstructed after tumour ablation, and to analyse complications and donor site morbidity. Thirty-four patients with advanced stage oral cancer (T3 and T4) underwent tumour ablation with or without suspicious lymph node removal and with immediate reconstruction of oral defect with lateral arm flap. Analysis of complications and donor sites morbidity was carried out. The Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire was used to evaluate functional and esthetical donor site outcome during at least one year follow up. Thirty-one patients had successful free flap surgery with uneventful post-surgery period. Flap loss due to vascularity problems was in one case (2.9%). The flap success rate was 97.1%. The donor site was closed primarily in all cases and healed uneventfully. The Michigan Hand Outcome Score was average 94.30%. The lateral arm is an excellent choice for oral reconstruction after ablative tumour surgery. It is versatile, safe and reliable for oral reconstruction with very good functional and aesthetical donor site outcome.