LPV design of fault-tolerant control for road vehicles
The aim of the paper is to present a supervisory decentralized architecture for the design and development of reconfigurable and fault-tolerant control systems in road vehicles. The performance specifications are guaranteed by local controllers, while the coordination of these components is provided by a supervisor. Since the monitoring components and FDI filters provide the supervisor with information about the various vehicle maneuvers and the different fault operations, it is able to make decisions about necessary interventions into the vehicle motions and guarantee reconfigurable and fault-tolerant operation of the vehicle. The design of the proposed reconfigurable and fault-tolerant control is based on an LPV method that uses monitored scheduling variables during the operation of the vehicle.
There are several methods of automotive diagnostics used in services to detect a large variety of faults and damages of various parts of engines of internal combustion. Undoubtedly, they are effective, but they are simply unable to find all types of mechanical faults occurring during the operation. This is the reason why authors of this paper tried to use a special tool, which has been proven for years for detecting faults of rolling element bearing in rotating machinery. During their research, the authors tried to find valuable results by measuring vibration of various parts of engines. Three items were tested, a Diesel engine and two Otto motors. A large number of measurements have been taken at various speed, at different points, in different directions, with different parameter setup, etc. However, there was one setup which has been applied to all three engines. It is the measurement setup of vibration velocity, in the frequency range of 2 Hz-300 Hz. Valuable consequences have been found regarding the clogging of the air filters and the exhaust systems. As a conclusion the authors expressed their opinion, that, apart from the traditional diagnostic methods used in services, vibration measurements can also be useful, especially for detecting faults of rolling element bearings.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on 12 quality parameters of apricot fruit in treatments of cold storage (1°C for 7, 14 and 21 days) and shelf-life (4 and 8 days at 25°C after a 21-day cold storage treatment). Fruit quality parameters included 6 physico-chemical characteristics (weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, acidity, total soluble solids/acidity ratio and juice pH) and 6 sensory properties (skin and flesh colour, texture, taste, visual appearance and overall acceptability). Among physico-chemical characteristics, applications of 0.2 mmol/L methyl jasmonate and 2 mmol/L salicylic acid significantly reduced fruit weight loss, fruit softening and juice pH and maintained soluble solid content and acidity over the whole storage period. Among sensory properties, all parameters were generally increased by methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid treatments compared to water-treated control and the water-treated fruits showed the lowest scores below the acceptability limit except for skin colour. In conclusion, our results suggest using methyl jasmonate and/or salicylic acid to enhance and prolong the storability of apricot fruits during both cold storage and shelf-life period.
A multi-level reconfiguration framework is proposed for fault tolerant control of over-actuated aerial vehicles, where the levels indicate how much authority is given to the reconfiguration task. On the lowest, first level the fault is accommodated by modifying only the actuator/sensor configuration, so the fault remains hidden from the baseline controller. A dynamic reallocation scheme is applied on this level. The allocation mechanism exploits the actuator/sensor redundancy available on the aircraft. When the fault cannot be managed at the actuator/sensor level, the reconfiguration process has access to the baseline controller. Based on the LPV control framework, this is done by introducing fault-specific scheduling parameters. The baseline controller is designed to provide an acceptable performance level along all fault scenarios coded in these scheduling variables. The decision on which reconfiguration level has to be initiated in response to a fault is determined by a supervisor unit. The method is demonstrated on a full six-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation model of the GTM UAV.