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  • Author: Józefa Krawczyk x
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Open access

Zofia Sokołowicz, Józefa Krawczyk and Magdalena Dykiel

Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of the type of alternative housing system, and genotype and age of laying hens on physical traits of egg shell and contents. It was demonstrated that alternative housing system type influenced egg weight and shape, and eggshell color and yolk color intensity. Eggs from free-range system were heavier and were characterized by more intense yolk color. No effect of alternative housing system type on albumen height, value of Haugh units (HU value) and presence of meat and blood spots was noted. Hen genotype had a significant effect on egg weight and eggshell color intensity in each of the alternative housing systems tested in this study. Hy-line Brown hens laid heavier eggs than hens of native breeds. Genotype was also observed to affect egg content traits (albumen height, HU values and presence of meat and blood spots). Independently of the type of alternative housing system, most blood and meat spots were noted in eggs of hens laying brown-shelled eggs, i.e. R-11 and Hy-line Brown layers. Laying hen age significantly impacted on egg weight, yolk percentage, eggshell traits (color intensity, weight, thickness and strength) and egg content traits (HU value, yolk weight and color intensity, presence of meat and blood spots). Older hens laid heavier eggs with a greater yolk percentage but with thinner eggshell.

Open access

Michał Puchała, Józefa Krawczyk and Jolanta Calik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the quality of carcasses and meat from selected native breeds and breeding lines of hens after using them for laying eggs in terms of their usefulness as raw material in traditional old polish cuisine. hens included in the programme for the protection of genetic resources were the object of this study. they belonged to the following breeds/breeding lines: greenleg partridge (Z-11), rhode Island red (r-11), new hampshire (n-11) and Barred rock (WJ-44) – 30 hens from each line. the hens were kept in a closed hen house under standard raising conditions. eight hens were selected from 56-week-old hens of each line which were subjected to analysis after being slaughtered. as a result of the research conducted, it was found that:

– Among the hens under study, heavier layers, i.e. Barred rock (WJ-44), new hampshire (n-11) and rhode Island red (r-11), which are characterized by good muscling and dressing percentage similar to that of broiler chickens, proved to be most suitable for use as meat.

– The meat from WJ-44 hens contained most cholesterol and least protein, and the meat from Z-11 birds had the least fat compared to the other lines.

– At the end of the laying period, meat and broth from WJ-44, n-11 and r-11 hens obtained better sensory scores than those from the carcasses of Z-11 hens, which makes them an attractive raw material for traditional polish cuisine.

Open access

Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Ewa Sosin-Bzducha

Abstract

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m2 and fed a diet containing 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m2 per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased proportions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from confined hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more beneficial n-6/n-3 acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, flavour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.

Open access

Michał Puchała, Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz and Katarzyna Utnik-Banaś

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of breed (A) and free-range production system (B) on quality of meat from hens of two breeds, Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11), which are under the biodiversity conservation programme in Poland. Subjects were 120 hens of each breed, which were assigned to two treatment groups differing in the housing system: 60 layers were kept on litter without outdoor access (C) and 60 layers were raised on litter with access to free range (FR). At 56 weeks of age, 8 hens were randomly chosen from each group, slaughtered, and subjected to slaughter analysis. It was found from the study that carcasses from 56-week-old multi-purpose hens are characterized by poor muscle development and considerable fat content. After the first year of egg production, the meat of hens was characterized by low tenderness, high water holding capacity, and a fatty acid profile that was desirable from the viewpoint of human nutrition. In the meat of hens that completed their first year of egg production, the profile of fatty acids was beneficial from the standpoint of human nutrition. The free-range production system reduced carcass fatness, enhanced carcass and meat yellowness, and increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (both n-6 and n-3) in breast and leg muscles while causing no significant changes in the content of saturated fatty acids. The meat of the native Z-11 breed was found to contain less saturated and more unsaturated fatty acids compared to the meat of R-11 hens. There was no statistically significant effect of the production system on the sensory evaluation of cooked meat and broth.

Open access

Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Jerzy Koreleski and Maja Szefer

Performance and Egg Quality of Hens from Conservation Flocks Fed a Diet Containing Maize Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate laying performance and quality indices of consumption and hatching eggs in hens from conservation flocks fed a diet containing maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 360 Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) hens, included in the genetic resources conservation programme in Poland, were investigated. The good performance obtained by layers fed the DDGS diet indicates that maize distillers dried grains with solubles can serve as a useful source of protein in the nutrition of hens from conservation flocks, partly replacing imported soybean meal. The dietary inclusion of DDGS improved laying performance while maintaining hatchability traits and the quality of consumption eggs. The DDGS diet had an effect on nutritionally important egg quality traits, i.e. increased protein content of egg albumen and increased concentration of oleic and linoleic acids in yolk lipids, with a simultaneous increase in n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Dietary inclusion of DDGS also increased yolk colour intensity and Haugh units while having no effect on eggshell quality.

Open access

Zofia Sokołowicz, Józefa Krawczyk and Sylwester Świątkiewicz

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to demonstrate the possibilities of using Polish native breeds of chickens for the production of meat for its specific quality features in the light of worldwide researches. The object of the analysis was the quality of meat from slow-growing chickens raised in varied housing systems, including capons and poulards. The findings of studies on the quality of poultry meat from native breeds obtained from post-production cockerels and from hens in their post egg-laying stage have shown that there are chances for their use in meat production. Native breed hens can also be used as foundation material for the production of capons, poulards or international mixed breeds for purposes of extensive farming. The body weight of native breed hens, including their muscle build depend on the bird’s genotype, feeding, length of exploitation and farming system. Meat from native breed hens, raised in free-range systems has less fat, but with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids in their meat muscles as well as a healthier ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA acids. Outdoor free-range access influences the meat colour, i.e., bright coloured breast muscle (L*) as well as increased intensity of red coloration of leg muscles (b*). Caponisation of hens enhances intensified body weight gains along with increased fattening of meat. In comparison with cockerel meat, the meat of capons is more juicy, tender and of better taste, while poulard meat has distinctively favourable sensory values in comparison with broiler chicken meat.

Open access

Jolanta Calik, Katarzyna Połtowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Józefa Krawczyk and Joanna Nowak

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing Greenleg Partridge cockerels on slaughter parameters and meat quality. In total 80 Greenleg Partridge cockerels were assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and group II contained birds that were castrated at 8 weeks of age. Birds were kept until 24 weeks of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Body weight was recorded at 1, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat, and microstructure of the pectoralis superficialis muscle were determined postmortem. Physicochemical characteristics of meat (pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture parameters and chemical composition) were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. The castration of Greenleg Partridge cockerels contributed to increases in body weight, dressing percentage, and carcass muscle and fat content, and changed the colour of bird skin and muscles. The leg muscles of capons were characterized by higher pH24h, better water holding capacity, a tendency for higher fat concentration, and better sensory quality. The breast muscles of castrated cockerels lost more water and were tougher than the same muscles from uncastrated cockerels, but received better scores for flavour. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the caponized Greenleg Partridge cockerels can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat.

Open access

Joanna Obrzut, Józefa Krawczyk, Jolanta Calik, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Mariusz Pietras and Katarzyna Utnik-Banaś

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype (breed/line) and spaying of pullets on body weight, estradiol level, carcass and meat quality. Subjects were Rhode Island Red (R-11), Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) and Sussex hens (S-66), 100 birds per line, which were divided into 2 groups, each having 50 pullets and 50 poulards. Spaying was performed at 10 wk of age, under local anesthesia by a veterinarian. The present study showed that blood estradiol levels in poulards were much lower than in pullets regardless of genotype. Poulards showed higher body weight and their carcasses higher lightness and yellowness. In the sensory evaluation, poulard breast meat was more tasty and leg meat also more juicy and tender compared to pullet meat. Among the three conserved breeds, Rhode Island Red (R-11) and Yellowleg Partridge (Ż-33) hens are the best starting material for poulard production. Their carcasses showed good muscling and intense yellowness desirable to the consumers. R-11 birds achieved highest body weight. Spaying of pullets had no significant effect on the profile of fatty acids, but greater and statistically significant differences in this regard were found between hen lines. Compared to S-66 birds, breast muscles of R-11 and Ż-33 birds contained more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The breast and leg muscles of these birds had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA ).

Open access

Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek, Józefa Krawczyk, Witold Szczurek, Michał Puchała and Damian Józefiak

Abstract

The aim of the experiment with 240 ISA Brown hens fed the diets with standard or decreased Ca level was to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and eggshell quality. The hens were allocated to 10 treatments, each containing 12 cages (replicates) of 2 birds. A 2 × 5 experimental arrangement was used. From 26 to 70 wks of age, experimental diets containing 3.20 or 3.70% Ca were used. The diets were either not supplemented, or supplemented with sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herb extracts blend or chitosan. The decreased dietary Ca reduced eggshell quality indices in older hens (43-69 wks) (P<0.05) without effect on performance indices. The addition of the probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan increased the laying rate (P<0.05). In older hens, i.e. at 69 wk, chitosan increased eggshell thickness and breaking strength, while herb extracts increased eggshell thickness (P<0.05). There was no interaction between the experimental factors in performance and eggshell quality. The used feed additives had no influence on fatty acid profile of egg lipids, however diet supplementation with chitosan decreased cholesterol concentration in egg yolk lipids (P<0.05). It can be concluded that such feed additives as probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan may positively affect performance and eggshell quality, irrespective of Ca dietary level.

Open access

Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek, Witold Szczurek, Jolanta Calik, Józefa Krawczyk and Damian Józefiak

Abstract

The trial with 240 caged ISA Brown laying hens was performed to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation as well as biomechanical (breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness) and geometrical (cortex thickness, cross-section area, weight, length) indices of tibia and femur bones. At 26 wks of age the layers were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 12 replicates (cages) of two birds. In the study a 2 × 5 experimental scheme was used i.e. to 70 wks of age, the layers were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets containing reduced (3.20%) or standard (3.70%) Ca level. The diets with both Ca levels were either not supplemented, or supplemented with the studied feed additives i.e. sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herbal extract blend and chitosan. There were no statistically significant effects of the experimental factors on the indices of the tibia bones. However, the diet with reduced Ca level decreased bone breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness, and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). The majority of used feed supplements, i.e. probiotic, herb extracts, and chitosan, increased biomechanical indices (breaking strength and yielding load) and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). Neither dietary Ca level nor feed additives affected dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, N-free extracts, crude fibre and ash digestibility, and P retention and excretion; however, Ca excretion and retention was lower in the hens fed the diets with reduced Ca level (P<0.05). Relative Ca retention (Ca retained as % of Ca intake) was improved by diet supplementation with probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that decreased Ca dietary level (3.20%) can negatively affect bone quality in layers, while probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan addition may improve the selected biomechanical indices of the femurs, irrespective of Ca dietary concentration.