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Ireneusz Kowalski, Tadeusz Palko, Roman Pasniczek and Jozef Szarek

Characteristics of lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS) and its effect on the degree of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

Clinical studies were carried out in the period of 2003-2006 at the Provincial Children's Rehabilitation Hospital in Ameryka near Olsztyn (Poland). The study involved a group of children and youth exhibiting spinal deformity progression in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) of more than 5° per year according to the Cobb scale. Four hundred and fifty patients between 4 and 15 years of age were divided into three groups (n = 150). Group I and group II received 2-hour and 9-hour lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS), respectively, whereas group III (control) was treated only with corrective exercises for 30 minutes twice a day. LESS was performed with the use of a battery-operated SCOL-2 stimulator manufactured by Elmech, Warsaw, Poland.

The effectiveness of this method was confirmed in the treatment of spinal IS in children and youth, especially when the initial spinal deformity did not exceed 20° according to the Cobb scale. A short-duration electrostimulation (2 hours daily) was found to produce results similar to those obtained after overnight (9 h) electrostimulation. Moreover, the analysis of the Harrington prognostic index F confirms the positive effect of LESS in both groups of patients (2 h and 9 h of LESS).

Open access

Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Józef Szarek, Michał Czopowicz, Joanna Mieczkowska and Roman Lechowski

Abstract

Morphological lesions in hepatic stellate cells caused by the immunosuppressive doses of dexamethasone were investigated in dogs. The archival samples of liver collected during a surgical biopsy were examined. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin or Carnoy’s solution and then stained with routine histochemical methods. The lesions were also investigated under electron microscope. It was demonstrated that the number of stellate cells significantly increased (P = 0.0277), yet the size of cytoplasmic lipid droplets significantly decreased (P = 0.0001). Even though steroid-induced hepatopathy is considered to be a reversible pathology, and the lesions in hepatocytes under the influence of dexamethasone occur in a short period, it was found that hepatic stellate cells proliferated and underwent activation. This resulted in collagen accumulation in the hepatic sinuses. The functional and morphological disturbances in the canine liver in the course of steroid-induced hepatopathy are initially subclinical, but the changes in the structure and function of hepatic stellate cells may become a cause of lesions in the wall of hepatic sinusoidal vessels, which may induce additional functional pathologies unrelated to the damage to hepatocytes.

Open access

Magdalena Szweda, Józef Szarek, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz and Beata Szynaka

Abstract

Hepatoprotective effect of plant drugs against hepatic tissue injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was assessed on Beagle dogs. The adverse effects of carprofen and robenacoxib on the hepatic tissue were evaluated on the basis of histopathological examination of liver sections. It was demonstrated that the use of NSAIDs with liquorice and composed plant remedy Pectosol¯ caused a reduction of hepatic adverse effects induced by the administration of NSAIDs. This fact indicates a hepatoprotective effect of the tested plant remedies during the treatment with NSAIDs. However, the results require further studies on a larger group of animals. Liquorice and Pectosol¯ reduce the hepatic side effects, which develop after the treatment with carprofen and, to a lesser extent, robenacoxib in young Beagles. Such studies allow to investigate the negative and positive effects of using robenacoxib and carprofen in dogs and, therefore, help to limit the NSAID-induced side effects on the liver in these animals.

Open access

Izabella Babińska, Katarzyna Kleczek, Józef Szarek and Włodzimierz Makowski

Abstract

The liver and kidneys of broilers fed during the first two weeks of fattening a fodder containing the addition of 0.025% propolis and/or 0.5% pollen were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Additionally, the effects of these substances on the results of breeding and on pathomorphology of the liver and kidneys in the course of natural, asymptomatic infection with Salmonella Enteritidis were determined. The results demonstrated that propolis has protective effects on the liver of broiler chickens, reducing the intensity of regressive lesions. However, regarding supplementation of the diet with bee pollen, additional research on its effects in animals is needed.

Open access

Agnieszka A. Barszcz, Ewa Siemianowska, Marcin Sidoruk, Krystyna A. Skibniewska and Józef Szarek

Abstract

Poland is one of the countries with limited water resources where water saving is recommended e.g. by improving aquaculture methods to use less water. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of water quality and aquaculture technology on bioaccumulation of calcium, magnesium and sodium in muscle tissue of rainbow trout. The study was performed in spring and autumn 2011 in two trout fish farms using different farming technologies: one with flow-through system and the other with water recirculation system. The farming technology had significant influence on magnesium and sodium in waste waters but did not affect the content of the minerals in muscle tissue of rainbow trout

Open access

Małgorzata Sobczak-Filipiak, Józef Szarek, Iwona Badurek, Jessica Padmanabhan, Piotr Trębacz, Monika Januchta-Kurmin and Marek Galanty

Abstract

Introduction: The clinical symptoms of portosystemic shunts (PSSs) and hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD) – portal vein hypoplasia (PVH) in dogs are similar. PSSs are abnormal vascular connections between the portal vein system and systemic veins. HMD is a very rare developmental vascular anomaly, recognisable during histopathological examination. The study aim was to assess the prevalence of HMD–PVH and hepatocellular and vascular pathologies in the liver. Material and Methods: Liver biopsies from 140 dogs (of different breeds and both sexes) arousing clinical suspicion of PSS were examined histopathologically. Results: An initial PSS diagnosis was confirmed in 125 dogs (89.29%). HMD–PVH was found in 12.32% of dogs, as an isolated disease in 9.29%, especially in Yorkshire terriers, and with extrahepatic PSS in 6.67%. Histopathological analysis of muscles around sublobular veins showed that HMD cases presented hypertrophy or hypertrophy with fibrosis. In 2.17% of all dogs with liver vascular developmental disorders calcification was visible around vessels (without correlation by degenerative changes in those vessels), suggesting prior onset of deep metabolic disorders. Clinical suspicion of PSS was also formed upon quite different pathological processes in young dogs. Conclusion: Histopathological findings diagnosed the type of vascular anomalies (PSS or HMD–PVH) or other pathological changes conclusively, therefore detailed hepatic histopathology is an indispensable component of the clinical diagnostic process.