The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale
In the recent years, when it comes to topics concerning rural areas and agriculture, sustainability has become a key term resonating in the political, economical, social and environmental discussions. These issues are discussed across the globe and Poland is not an exception. There are many features that have impact on sustainability. Among others it is situation in agricultural production, employment in agriculture, access to the land and situation at the land market, aspects of the environmental protection or the administrative structure of the country. Therefore, the main objective of the presented paper is to a comprehensive summary of different aspects influencing rural development in Poland with an emphasis on sustainability. Based on the conducted analysis it can be stated that even though many positive changes have been implemented in the Polish reality, there are still many issues with need to be urgently addressed.
Józef Mosiej, Hubert Komorowski and Agnieszka Karczmarczyk
Factors affecting water quality in degraded sewage receivers — case study of the phosphorus dynamics in the Ner River
No adequate reaction has been observed of the decreased contaminant loads discharged by Łódź, particularly the loads of phosphorus, on its concentration in the Ner River. That's why the impact of sediment on phosphorus content in the water was evaluated. Not only was the amount of phosphorus taken under consideration but also the equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPCo). The meaning of EPCo is that any phosphate concentration in the water below this value will lead to phosphorus release from sediments. Performed study shows that in the Puczniew cross-section EPCo is higher then phosphorus concentration in water, thus with mean concentration of PO4 equal to 9.5 mg PO4·dm-3 phosphorus could be released from sediments. This concentration in Lutomiersk cross-section, however, equals 1.2 mg PO4·dm-3.
Changes in transboundary water resources management in Central Asia brought the river pollution issue even more up to date than runoff and water distribution problems. This survey demonstrates that the analysis of river flow dynamics. Their water consumption and pollution makes it possible to prioritize these aspects of water management.
As in the case of the Tobol-Torgay basin in Kazakhstan it was shown that for this type of basins. anthropogenic pollution remains a priority factor in transboundary water management. The Tobol River a tributary of the Ob and the Irtysh rivers belongs to the Kara Sea basin and is situated in the territory of Kazakhstan and Russia. Tobol-Torgay River basin located within borders of Kostanay region of Kazakhstan covers the upper reaches of the Tobol River and its tributaries. It has been determined that the water quality of the rivers in the region is stable for the decade under study and its formation remains due to natural factors. The priority contaminants in the basin are heavy metals and organic matter introduced by anthropogenic sources.
The idea of the article was to present the issues of cross-border water management, one of the largest in terms of area countries in the world (ranked 9th in the world in terms of area), Kazakhstan. In the scientific community involved in water management Kazakhstan is usually associated with a catchment area of two large bodies without the possibility of outflow – the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Agnieszka Karczmarczyk, Sławomir Skowron, Józef Mosiej and Anna Baryła
The needs and possibilities of constructing on site wastewater treatment plants in forester's lodges
Forest lodges are often located far from settlements which makes that water supply and sewage treatment problems must be treated in an individual manner. Domestic waste waters from free-standing buildings not connected to sewerage systems should be collected in septic tanks and transported to sewage treatment plants or treated in place of their production in the so-called on-site wastewater treatment plants. Based on data from 33 forest commissions subjected to the Regional Authority of State Forests in Olsztyn an assessment of the equipment of forest lodges in water and waste water infrastructure. Water supply and waste water management was the subject of analyses. From among 795 analysed forest lodges 59% were supplied in water from the water mains out of which 11 lodges possessed also their own water intake. The remaining 41% of lodges had their own intakes of potable water. Sixty percent of forest lodges were equipped with septic tanks. Slightly more than a half of them had a contract for waste water disposal, others had bills for such services. From among analysed lodges 18% were connected to sewer systems and 22% had on site wastewater treatment plants. Technology of on site wastewater treatment was presented in this paper. Their advantages and disadvantages were discussed and practical solutions to be applied in analysed forest lodges were presented.