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Open access

Daniel Mikła, Krystyna Hoffmann and Józef Hoffmann

Production of suspension fertilizers as a potential way of managing industrial waste

Research on the possibilities of utilizing several waste substances for the production of suspension fertilizers has been carried out. The substances were: sludge from the ALWERNIA S.A. Chemical Plant - a potential source of phosphorous (~20% by wt. P2O5) and waste sludge from the production of magnesium sulphates and nitrates in the Złotniki S.A. Chemical Plant - a substance aiding the stability of suspension and magnesite (a source of magnesium). The possibility of chemical activation of clayey minerals through ion exchange was investigated. Na2CO3 was used for this purpose. Fertilizer samples PK and NPK were found to be highly stable (syneresis < 25%). The NPK +3% MgO sample was found to have particularly good properties. The activation of the clayey materials by Na2CO3 resulted in an increase in the stability coefficient in the case of bentonite SN and clay TIK by 0.88964 and 0.516304, respectively.

Open access

Jakub Skut, Krystyna Hoffmann and Józef Hoffmann

PAPRs (Partially Acidulated Phosphate Rocks) are the most prospective phosphate fertilizers, mainly through the use of the smaller amount of reagents and the ability to utilize low-grade phosphate rocks with a low content of P2O5. The aim of our studies was to investigate the temperature and moisture infl uence on the curing process of PAPR-type fertilizer products. Fertilizer preparations of a PAPR-type were obtained in the Atlas model-type apparatus (Syrris Ltd.). The curing temperature and the moisture content were controlled by the heating time of the reaction vessel and the degree of PAPR stoichiometric norm (ηPAPR). Our results indicate that increasing the curing temperature of the PAPR-type fertilizer product by 10oC can lead to a decrease in the moisture content of the fi nal product by an average value of 1.5% w/w. Additionally reducing the moisture content by 1% w/w may correspond to an increase in P2O5 content by an average value of 0.5% w/w.

Open access

Krystyna Hoffmann, Józef Hoffmann, Marta Huculak-Mączka and Jakub Skut

Investigation of applying calcium oxide for the removal of bitter substances from hop wastes

Utilization of brewery wastes is one of the solutions for the production of the fodder supplements containing biogenic nutrients. The condition of such application is to meet the requirements included in the regulations regarding animal feeding, particularly removing a bitter taste. The aim of the performed investigations was the removal of bitter acids from the post-extraction hop waste using the calcium oxide addition. For the examination hop wastes obtained as a by-product from the CO2 plant extraction in supercritical conditions, were applied. Physicochemical properties of the waste samples collected for the investigations were determined by applying the available standard analytical techniques. The analyses of the determination of bitter acids were carried out by the high performance liquid chromatography method. During the experiments very good effects of bitter acids removal from hop wastes, were obtained by using CaO suspensions in water. The investigations on the influence of the CaO concentration in suspension on the efficiency of bitter acids removal indicate the possibility of applying suspensions by 2 wt% for this purpose.

Open access

Magdalena Borowiec, Marta Huculak, Krystyna Hoffmann and Józef Hoffmann

Biodegradation of selected substances used in liquid fertilizers as an element of Life Cycle Assessment

The results of laboratory investigations into the aerobic biodegradation of chelating compounds in water medium under static test conditions are presented. It was found that nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) are more readily biodegradable than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) commonly used in the production of liquid fertilizers. Biodegradation was evaluated on the basis of compound decay and changes in COD.

Open access

Krystyna Hoffmann, Barbara Lewandowska, Magdalena Borowiec and Józef Hoffmann

Utilization of poultry droppings in mineral-organic fertilizers

The results of physicochemical analyses of raw and composted turkey droppings and those of germination tests carried out using the droppings are presented. On the basis of the results formulas for microelement mineral-organic fertilizers have been developed and fertilizer rates have been determined for winter wheat.

Open access

Józef Hoffmann, Krystyna Hoffmann, Magdalena Borowiec and Marta Huculak

Environmental aspects of feed phosphates production

The risks resulting from the selected feed phosphates application in animal nutrition were analyzed. The results of the analyses of the fodder phosphates obtained in laboratory conditions were presented, including the toxic and disadvantageous substances with regard to their impact upon the environment.

Open access

Magdalena Borowiec, Paulina Polańska and Józef Hoffmann

Biodegradability of the compounds introduced with microelement fertilizers into the environment

The results of laboratory studies into the oxygen biodegradation of chelating substances in aqueous medium under kinetic and static test conditions with added glucose as an additional source of carbon, are presented. It has been found that S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (S,S-EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA) are more readily degradable than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), most commonly used in the production of microelement fertilizers. It has also been found that the presence of additional carbon sources accelerates biodegradation.

Open access

Józef Hoffmann, Grażyna Gryglewicz, Krystyna Hoffmann, Stanisław Gryglewicz, Wiktor Okereke and Jakub Skut

Emission of the odour substances from fertilizer industry

Mineral fertilizers are indispensable for the intensification of plant production in agriculture. This process can cause a significant odour nuisance for the environment due to organic compounds content in apatites and phosphorites converted into fertilizers. The following chemical compounds are emitted to the gas phase among others: hydrogen sulphide, organic sulphides and (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, butyl) disulphides, chain hydrocarbons, organic oils, waxes and carboxylic acids. A method using gas chromatography analysis with the mass detector (TD-GS-MS), to determine trace concentrations, was developed and tested for the assessment of odour nuisant substances emission from these processes. Application of additional thermal desorber to enable the intense desorption of the investigated organic compounds (previously adsorbed on classical sorbents) in the industrial research has been taken into consideration. In effect it facilitates the accumulating substances to be analyzed at short time interval providing identifying measurements. The technique has been verified during the investigation of the substances emitted in fertilizers processes at Maroko phosphorite decomposition. The organic sulfur compounds, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons have been detected.

Open access

Agata Śliwak, Stanisław Gryglewicz, Józef Hoffmann and Grażyna Gryglewicz

Precursors of volatile organic compounds emitted during phosphorite processing

The composition of solvent-soluble organic matter of phosphorite, which is a precursor of volatile organic compounds emitted by the fertilizer industry, was studied. A benzene-methanol mixture and chloroform were used for the extraction of free and bound bitumen from phosphorites, respectively. The separated bitumen fractions were characterized qualitatively by GC-MS and quantitatively by GC-FID. n-Alkanes, n-alkenes, fatty acids and isoprenoids were identified in the extracts. The main components were n-alkanes and n-alkenes, constituting over 80% of the total bitumen determined. An unexpected presence of n-alkenes only in the free bitumen fraction was found. The possible source of ill-smelling substances evolved during treatment of phosphorite with H2SO4 was discussed.

Open access

Ewa Stanisławska-Glubiak, Jolanta Korzeniowska, Józef Hoffmann, Helena Górecka, Wiktor Jóźwiak and Grażyna Wiśniewska


For ground phosphate rock (GPR) to be applied as phosphorus fertilizer, the availability of phosphorus to plants needs to be improved. One possible way to achieve this is by adding sulphur, which will accelerate decomposition of phosphate in soil owing to the activation of microbiological processes. This study involved granulation of fertilizers composed of phosphate and sulphur mixed at 38:1 and 10:1 ratios and two analogous fertilizer variants but with added molasses as a source of organic carbon for sulphur bacteria. A small-scale industrial installation for production of multi-component fertilizers was used to make granular fertilizer by the compaction method. The granular fertilizers were then tested in an agricultural experiment. The fertilizer in which the phosphate to sulphur ratio was 10:1 produced better effects. Addition of molasses to the fertilizers did not improve their fertilizing capacity