The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the four major crops in Poland. In 2013 the area used for potato cultivation in Poland reached 270 thousand hectares. Among the important factors influencing the potato yield and quality are: soil cultivation and protection of plants. One of the most essential factors affecting the potato yield and quality is fertilization. The aim of the field trials carried out in 2014 on experimental potato plots was to determine the effect of dr Green foliar feed nutrients on plant health and on potato quality and yield (Jelly variety). The results of the studies and observations revealed that the application of Dr Green Ziemniak, Dr Green Start and Dr Green Energy foliar feeds favourably affected the quality, yield and structure of Jelly potato tuber crop.
The study assesses the quality of malt from spring malting barley grown in the Podkarpackie Province, and delivered to the SAN Farmers' Cooperative in 2018. After the initial technological assessment in the laboratory of SAN, the grain was malted in the Department of Agricultural and Food Production Engineering at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Land Management and Environmental Protection of the University of Rzeszow. Moisture, protein content, runoff time, viscosity, pH, wort clarity, extract content and diastatic power were determined in the tested malt, as well as wort obtained from it in the process of mashing. The average parameters of protein content, extractivity of malt ground into flour, of pH and the wort extract were normative, while the other researched parameters did not meet high quality requirements. A high loss of grain mass was noted during malting. After laboratory tests of malt and wort, it was determined that part of the malting raw material is of high malting quality and can be used without modification in the brewhouse for the malting and mashing process.
The article presents an analysis of the energy, mechanical and chemical properties of pellets made of wood material. According to the manufacturer, wood pellets were made of hard wood shredded to fractions approx. 1 mm thick and up to 3-4 mm long, and of a waste source - sawdust. Measurements of the selected properties were carried out on pellets with a diameter of 6 and 8 mm. Mechanical durability, humidity, crumble rate, ash quantity, calorific value were determined, as well as macronutrient and heavy metals content. The calorific value of pellets, with moisture content from 7.48% to 6.76% and ash content from 0.31% to 0.55%, ranged from 17.71-19.18 MJ·kg−1, which testified to the beneficial energy use of the tested raw material. Based on the conducted research, it was found that the mechanical properties of pellets made of both sawdust and hard wood predispose them for use as boiler fuel. The tested materials met high quality standards for wood pellets used for non-industrial and industrial purposes.
The study was designed to assess technological quality of grains from two wheat cultivars (Elixer and Rockefeller), as well as one cultivar of winter (Joy) and one cultivar of spring barley (Irina), and to carry out the malting process at temperature of 15°C for 5 days. Malt analyses were carried out in accordance with the ECB Methods. The wheat malts were found with lower Kolbach index, and high viscosity was identified in wort obtained from wheat. The findings related to the wheat malts showed better quality parameters in Elixer variety compared to Rockefeller variety. Elixer wheat malt had higher diastatic power (427.03 WK) and lower extractivity (81.85%) compared to Joy barley malt (376.12 WK and 85.79%). Laboratory tests assessing the malts and wort showed that winter barley grain has high malting quality and can be used without modifications in the malting and mashing processes in brewing industry. It is necessary to conduct further research focusing on cultivation, agricultural techniques and technologies applied in wheat farming, in order to obtain cultivars which can be used to produce high quality malts.
The study concerns the effects of drying process conditions (40, 50, 60°C) on the contents of bioactive compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots as well as the yield and composition of essential oils. The obtained dry material was examined for the total contents of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity as well as the content of vitamin C. The material was examined by using the HS-SPME method, and the composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography method (GC-MS). The highest contents of bioactive compounds were found in the material subjected to drying at 40°C. The highest yield of essential oils (0.63 ml 100 g−1 d.m. of the material) was obtained from the pine shoots dried at 40°C.
This study examined the impact of the ozonation procedure on the content of bioactive compounds in young shoots of Pinus sylvestris L. as well as on the yield and the composition of the essential oils and volatile fraction. The ozonation process consisted of exposure of the raw material during 5, 15 and 30 min to the ozone gas with the concentration of 10 and 100 ppm, and then it was stored for 24 hours. In the ozonated pine shoots, the content of vitamin C overall content of polyphenol content and antioxidant potential were determined. It was found that the investigated parameters increased as a result of the utilized procedure. The observed increase in the content of tested bioactive compounds was dependent on exposition time and was found to be highest for ozonated material for 15 min with ozone gas at a concentration of 10 ppm. As a result of the ozonation procedure the content of polyphenolic compounds and vitamin C content increased. Whereas it, did not have a significant effect on composition of the obtained essential oils. It was found that ozone is an effective elicitor, which allows increasing the content of bioactive compounds in pine shoots.
The study presents assessment of commodity characteristics of grains from ancient varieties of wheat (einkorn, emmer and spelt) in comparison to grains of the conventional wheat cultivar Arkadia. The findings related to the grain of einkorn and emmer were very similar, and far worse than those related to spelt grain; the latter were found with better ratings, sometimes even in comparison to the conventional wheat grain (e.g. the highest mass-weight density). Similar relationships were observed between the flours produced by milling the grains. Analysis of the indirect baking quality indicators showed that flours from einkorn and emmer can effectively be used for baking purposes, however they present low technological value. The flour from emmer wheat was found to be the poorest, which was confirmed e.g. by the low gluten number, gluten index, Zeleny’s index, and high gluten spreadability. Spelt flour was found to present moderate technological value. Based on the results it can be concluded that by using adequate modification in the process of dough kneading and fermentation it will be possible to produce high quality baked goods from ancient wheat grains.
The study assesses the impact of selected fruit properties and the souring process parameters on the mechanical properties of four varieties of field cucumbers (Śremianin, Śremski, Polan and Izyd) harvested from 2014 to 2016. The analyses focused on the changes in the values of the puncture strength parameters of the peel and the mesocarp, the deformation from the moment of puncture and the energy needed to puncture the peel and the mesocarp of the selected cucumber varieties relative to the year of harvest, fruit size, type of brine, puncture location and souring time. Neural networks were used to model the relationships studied. Sensitivity analysis of the obtained models showed that the length fraction had the greatest impact on the puncture strength and the energy needed to puncture the peel and the mesocarp. On the other hand, deformation was most affected by the souring time and the brine composition.