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Józef Błachnio

Abstract

The paper has been intended to discuss non-destructive testing methods and to present capabilities of applying them to diagnose objectively changes in the microstructure of a turbine blade with computer software engaged to assist with the analyses. The following techniques are discussed: a visual method, based on the processing of images of the material surface in visible light, active thermography, based on the detection of infrared radiation, and the X-ray computed tomography. All these are new non-destructive methods of assessing technical condition of structural components of machines. They have been intensively developed at research centers worldwide, and in Poland. The computer-aided visual method of analyzing images enables diagnosis of the condition of turbine blades, without the necessity of dismantling of the turbine. On the other hand, the active thermography and the X-ray computed tomography, although more sensitive and more reliable, can both be used with the blades dismounted from the turbine. If applied in a complex way, the non-destructive methods presented in this paper, are expected to increase significantly probability of detecting changes in the blade's condition, which in turn would be advantageous to reliability and safety of gas turbine service.

Open access

Piotr Woźny and Józef Błachnio

Abstract

W trakcie eksploatacji statki powietrzne (SP) podlegają użytkowaniu, obsługiwaniu, naprawie i utylizacji. Każdy z tych procesów musi spełnić odpowiednie wymagania jakościowe. W pracy przedstawiono wymagania związane z zarządzaniem jakością, jakie powinien spełniać podsystem obsługi i napraw SP. Przeprowadzono analizę dokumentów zawierających wymagania dotyczące sfery zarządzania, jak i sfery technicznej. Przedstawiono obowiązujące normy i przepisy mające wpływ na zapewnienie jakości procesu naprawy SP. Zawarto opis norm, których przestrzeganie jest niezbędne do skutecznego działania współczesnych podsystemów obsługi i napraw, mających zdecydowany wpływ na utrzymanie wymaganego stanu zdatności SP. Przedstawiono złożoność procesu podejmowania decyzji dotyczących obsług i napraw SP w podsystemie utrzymania zdatności

Open access

Józef Błachnio and Andrzej Gronczewski

Study of Aircraft Wing Flap Hydraulic System Dynamics Under Damages Due to Operating an Aircraft

The paper indicates the main reasons for faulty operation of aeroplane wing flap hydraulic systems. A mathematical model of the wing flap dynamics has been presented, allowing an analysis of a simulation study taking into account damages due to usual wear and tear during operating of a plane.

Open access

Piotr Woźny and Józef Błachnio

Abstract

During operation, aircraft (AC) are subject to use, maintenance, repair and disposal. Each of those processes requires adequate quality. This study presents requirements related to quality management with which an AC maintenance and repair sub-system ought to comply. Documents containing requirements pertaining to both management and technical aspects have been analysed. Applicable standards and regulations affecting the AC repair process quality assurance have been presented. A description of standards observance of which is required to ensure effective operation of modern AC maintenance and repair subsystems significantly affecting maintenance of the AC required airworthiness has been included. Complexity of the decision-taking process pertaining to AC maintenance and repair within the airworthiness maintenance sub-system has been presented

Open access

Piotr Woźny and Józef Błachnio

Abstract

The article presents the impact of welding non-conformities on microhardness of EN AW 5754 aluminium alloy welded joints made with the use of the TIG method. The results of microhardness tests of welded samples made with various process parameters. The impact of the welding non-conformities disclosed with the use of a tomographic method on the welded joint microhardness were analysed. The studies showed a strong link between the participation of welding non-conformities, welding process parameters and microhardness of welds.

Open access

Józef Błachnio

Abstract

Structural components of gas turbines, particularly the blades, sustain a variety of damages during the operation process. The most frequent cause of these damages are the overheating and thermal fatigue of the material. A primary technique to assess condition of the blades is the metallographic examination. In spite of the fact that metallographic analysis delivers much more information on the structure of examined blade material, it is a type of destructive test resulting in the destruction of the blade which makes further utilization of the item impossible. The paper has been intended to discuss non-destructive testing methods and to present capabilities of applying them to diagnose objectively changes in the microstructure of a turbine blade with computer software engaged to assist with the analyses. The following techniques are discussed: a visual method, based on the processing of images of the material surface in visible light, active thermography, based on the detection of infrared radiation, and the X-ray computed tomography. All these are new non-destructive methods of assessing technical condition of structural components of machines. They have been intensively developed at research centers worldwide, and in Poland. The computer-aided visual method of analyzing images enables diagnosis of the condition of turbine blades, without the necessity of dismantling of the turbine. On the other hand, the active thermography and the X-ray computed tomography, although more sensitive and more reliable, can both be used with the blades dismounted from the turbine. If applied in a complex way, the non-destructive methods presented in this paper, are expected to increase significantly probability of detecting changes in the blade’s condition, which in turn would be advantageous to reliability and safety of gas turbine service

Open access

Marek Chalimoniuk, Józef Błachnio and Józef Krysztofik

Analysis of the Feasibility to Investigate Condition of Gas Turbine Vanes by Means of the Radiographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its vanes. The basic examination method intended to assess condition of the turbine vanes is the metallography, a destructive testing technology. The paper deals with the non-destructive test method of X-ray computer tomography (CT) that is chiefly used in medicine but is also suitable to diagnose how far the process of turbine vanes wear and tear is advanced. The computer tomography (CT) is the transmission diagnostic technique that makes it possible to obtain images of various layers within the investigated object. Application areas of this technique include also the quality control in manufacturing of technical facilities. The study presents results of assessments for gas turbine vanes with the use of the X-ray computer tomography after a specific period of the turbine operation. It was found out that the radiographic method, owing to availability of 3D images (including also internal defects) makes it possible to detect types of defects, their sizes and locations.

Open access

Artur Kułaszka, Józef Błachnio and Łukasz Kornas

Analysis of Feasibility to Assess Microstructure of Gas Turbine Blades by Means of the Thermographic Method

Operation of avionic turbine engines is always associated with possibility of various defects that may happen to turbine components, in particular to its blades. The most frequent reason for defects is overheating of the blade material but the thermal fatigue also occurs quite often. The most efficient examination method that provides plenty of information about structure of the investigated material of turbine blades is metallography but it is a destructive testing technology, so that the turbine no longer can be used after such investigation. This paper deals with methods of non-destructive tests that are currently in use and applicability of such methods to unbiased and trustworthy computer-aided diagnostics aimed to find out how the blade microstructure status varies in time. Results of initial examination of gas turbine blades are presented whereas the tests with use of the non-invasive thermographic method were carried out in order to assess condition of the blade material after the turbines had been subjected to the effect of high temperatures. Subsequently, the obtained results were successfully validated by means of the metallographic method. Eventually the conclusion could be made that the thermographic method makes it possible to achieve comprehensive and trustworthy information how microstructure of the blade materials is altered during the aircraft operation.

Open access

Henryk Borowczyk, Józef Błachnio and Jarosław Spychała

Abstract

The paper presents the concept of using the Scopus as a meta-source of knowledge about turbine blade damage in the aspect of designing an expert diagnostic system. In the first stage, the search was limited to the scope of the general term “turbine engine”, followed by a refinement of the search terms within the area of rotary machines components degradation including their construction, manufacturing, repair technology and diagnostic methods. By using EndNote software in semi-automatic mode, specific issue groups have been designated. In the second stage, a query focused on the main causes of turbine blade damage and diagnostic methods was proposed. Using the Scopus-based search and archiving tools, one can systematically update the knowledge.

Open access

Piotr Woźny, Józef Błachnio and Krzysztof Dragan

Abstract

The paper presents the problems arising in the process of repairs of aircraft (AC) components made of aluminium alloys during arc welding with the TIG (tungsten inert gas) method. The paper provides information on the rules applicable in the welding process qualification. The procedure algorithm when qualifying the welding process was presented in accordance with PN-EN ISO 15614-2. The main causes and factors affecting the formation of defects and welding imperfections were described and classified. The principles of preparing the components for welding and selection of a binder were discussed. The issue of effect of the welding parameters on the formation of defects and welding imperfections in relation to PN-L-01426 standard was raised. The application of computed tomography in assessment of the welded joints was described and tomograms from tests of butt welds of aluminium alloys made of the AW 5754 grade aluminium alloy were presented. On the example of the tomograms, the welding imperfections and defects formed in the tested joints were discussed. The usefulness of computed tomography in assessment of the welds’ quality was shown.