Janos Tóth jr., David Zalai, Janos Tóth and Pál Hamar
Study aim: The aim of this study is to prove that young players who have been coached with the main focus on technical ability and player interaction, perform better when tested on physical and technical attributes.
Material and methods: We examined 2 separate groups made up of 15 players each. After thorough analysis, the experimental group practiced playing forms to building up 3 vs 1 games weekly for one year. The control group did not follow this training pattern.
Results: Over the course of the year there was a constant development in all aspects of the examination. Furthermore, both physical and technical attributes were significantly better . The same cannot be concluded from the analysis of the control group, in which the performance level even dropped in some aspects of the examination.
Conclusion: The results show that players practicing the playing forms on a weekly basis performed better in physical and technical tests. In addition, subjective experience has also underlined the effect of the method.
János Ágoston, Péter Tóth-Horgosi, Tímea Kiss and Zsuzsanna Tóthné Taskovics
We have tested the refraction of 6 cultivars of open-field tomatoes. In our work, we have tested the nutritional values of tomato cultivars harvested at different times. Our aim was to answer the question as to which cultivar fulfils the requirements for processing under given circumstances. During harvest time, we also measured the ratio of yellow and red pigments. The trial was conducted in Kecskemét, Hungary, on the trial field of NAIK ZÖKO, in open-field conditions. The refraction measurement was done on weighted tomato, which was then ground to juice and then measured on a tabletop refractometer. The 6 tested cultivars Brix% were measured at 5 different harvest dates, and then the average refraction of the harvest was analysed. The most suitable cultivar for processing was found to be Solerosso.
Block-oriented modelling is a powerful tool in system design. The models developed this way can be used to study various systems, such as solar thermal systems. In the work presented, main goal is to compare different mathematical models of solar thermal devices. The difference in accuracy of such models in respect to the possibilities of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation will be discussed. Two models of solar thermal collectors will be compared and used in a system containing two different heat storages in order to study the behaviour of these models. The tests were carried out in a Simulink based block-oriented environment called SimSolar.
János Bagyura, József Fidlóczky, Vince Schwartz and László Tóth
Due to conservation measures, the breeding population of the Raven significantly strengthened over the last decades in Hungary, also nesting on the lowlands. Nowadays, observing large flocks is not rare. Compared to other European countries, the urbanization of the species began relatively late in Hungary, in the ‘90s, first breeding in the urban areas of Baranya County. There were another five similar known cases after the millennium across the country. Because of the advanced adaptive capacity of species, this number is likely to grow in the future. In Hungary, the brood is typically complete in the second half of February and the young birds fledge in the first days of May. There are two known cases after the millennium when the Ravens bred in a significantly different time than usual. In these cases, the young birds fledged on 20 January and the second half of February. In both cases, the nests were found on overhead transmission line poles in lowland agricultural areas. It is uncertain what led to the unusual breeding time, but it is most likely that the breeding pair was accustomed, having successfully raised several brood before, and they could rely on the abundant food base near the nests during the breeding period.
János Korponai, Ágota Bányainé Tóth and Béla Illés
The main purpose of the paper is to present the relations between the different cost factors of the inventory management systems, and the context between the order quantities and the cost level. The theoretical approach of the model assumes a deterministic operational environment with planned shortages. We make the examination of the contexts by applying the ceteris paribus principle; we change only one cost factor from among the initial conditions at once and examine its effect on the cost level.
By using the economic order quantity with the planned shortage model, we can define the optimal order quantity, along which our stock management can be guaranteed by the most favourable cost level. The optimisation of the inventory level and the inventory management expenses together means an important factor in the competitiveness of the company. During the definition of the optimal inventory level of purchased parts, the purchasing and stock holding costs, and also the consequence of shortages play an important role. The presentation of the specific expense factors in each other’s function, and the representation of the onetime order expenses show their proportion compared to each other and the effect of their change on the total cost, and define the opportunities of the optimisation. The significance of the model is that it represents the level line of costs, the movement of the different cost factors in relation to others and their operating mechanism. Thus, it facilitates the representation of costs and the definition of the direction of optimisation.
Pavol Porvaz, Ján Gaduš, Štefan Tóth and János Jóvér
“Dry fermentation“ technology may be used for energy recovery of phytomass substrate which has dry matter content from 20 to 60%. In agriculture sector, while only rarely used, it is a very perspective technology at such types of biomass – phytomass which is not recommended to be processed within “wet fermentation” (process is energetically and operationally very costly). For detecting the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus phytomass to biogas for production through dry fermentation process, as well as determining the biogas yield, at the Slovak university of Agriculture (SUA) there has been developed an experimental device enabling the pilot plant trials, which is installed at the biogas station within the area of the VPP SPU Ltd. in Kolíňany. A pilot plant experiment of biogas production based on Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.) phytomass within dry fermentation process was carried out at the period from 25 February to 25 March 2013. The monitored production of biogas was based on the substrate mixture of components formed as follows: the biomass from preceding cycle (farmyard manure) and ensilage from Miscanthus phytomass. In these experiments the amount of produced biogas, analysis of biogas and the input substrate were materialized by standard methodology. On base of the obtained results, we can formulate the conclusion: the tested substrate mainly consists of Miscanthus phytomass and manure was suitable for biogas production technology and anaerobic dry fermentation process. The yield of Miscanthus substrate in our experiments was around 117 litres of biogas per 1 kg of dry matter silage. For assurance of the continuity and uniformity in the production of biogas by dry fermentation process, the multiple-fermentation chamber is needed, which must be saturated gradually with dosing interval. This dosing interval is caused by residence time and the number of chambers. For example, at the residence time of 28 days and 4 chambers, the need of the substrate change will be on weekly base in each chamber.
Nowadays, the number of smart homes is increasing steadily. People tend to try anything for better comfort for their family, or simply for themselves. We spend roughly half of our lives at home, so it’s only logical to focus and pursue higher comfort levels for our homes. This phenomenon opens enormous potential for automation, whether it is automatic garage doors, motorized shutters, access control systems, HVAC systems, or anything else that serves our well-being. This project looks at the implementation of some automation tasks, using a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). This approach is different from conventional automation, thanks to the ability of the PLC to control everything in a building thus condensing three, or even four floors into one central unit.
Zsolt Kotroczó, Zsuzsa Veres, István Fekete, Mária Papp and János Attila Tóth
Climate change is a global problem. During the last century the increase of annual average temperature was 0.68°C, while the decrease of annual average of precipitation was 83 mm in Hungary. According to the long term meteorological data of Síkfőkút forest ILTER site the annual average temperature increased while average of yearly precipitation decreased, the forest climate became warmer and dryer. These processes could considerably contribute to forest decline, not only in the Quercetum petraeae-cerris stand of Síkfőkút, but everywhere in the country. Species composition and structure of the forest have changed considerably, as 68% of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and 16% of Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) have died. Forest decline resulted in the breaking up of the formerly closed canopy, and consequently, in the formation of gaps in the forest. In the gaps, a secondary canopy developed with tree species of less forestry value. As a consequence, mass regeneration of field maple (Acer campestre) appeard in the gaps. The formation of gaps accelerated the warming and aridity of forests. In the article we answer the following question: how did climatic change and changing forest structure influence the leaf-litter production in the last four decades?
The role of selenium has been changed over the last decade. The element that was previously considered to be toxic turned out to be present in the human body in amounts of 10–15 mg, and almost every cell of our body contains it. Selenium contributes to growth, supports healthy muscle activity, reproductive organs, reduces the toxicity of certain elements such as mercury, supports the immune system, and even delays the spread of certain viruses (influenza, Ebola, HIV). Selenium-deficient areas of Europe could be a risk for their populations. The recommended daily intake (RDA) of selenium is 55 µg/day, while WHO and FAO have set up the daily tolerable dose at 400 µg/day. We must count with the harmful effects of selenium overdose, but it is almost impossible to introduce this amount into our body solely with food. Our selenium sources can be refilled with food supplements or selenium-enriched functional foods. In the review article, we report about the role of selenium in the environment, selenium-enriched plants, selenium-enriched yeast, the role of selenium in animal feed and in the human body, the opportunities of selenium restoration, selenium-enriched animal products, and the selenium content of milk.
Zsuzsa Veres, Zsolt Kotroczó, Kornél Magyaros, János Attila Tóth and Béla Tóthmérész
Soil enzyme activities are “sensors” of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition since they integrate information about microbial status and physico-chemical condition of soils. We measured dehydrogenase enzyme activity in a deciduous temperate oak forest in Hungary under litter manipulation treatments. The Síkfőkút Detritus Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT) Project includes treatments with doubling of leaf litter and woody debris inputs as well as removal of leaf litter and trenching to prevent root inputs. We hypothesized that increased detrital inputs increase labile carbon substrates to soils and would increase enzyme activities particularly that of dehydrogenase, which has been used as an indicator of soil microbial activity. We also hypothesized that enzyme activities would decrease with detritus removal plots and decrease labile carbon inputs to soil. After ten years of treatments, litter removal had a stronger effect on soil dehydrogenase activity than did litter additions. These results showed that in this forest ecosystem the changed litter production affected soil microbial activity: reduced litter production decreased the soil dehydrogenase activity; increased litter production had no significant effect on the enzyme activity.