The metamagnetic properties of the manganese magnesium ferrites having the general formula Mn0.7Mg0.3Fe2O4 prepared by the standard ceramic technique have been studied. It is proposed that when a change of temperature at adequate magnetic field is applied in a Mn0.7Mg0.3Fe2O4 a magnetic phase transition will be generated, giving rise to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state from ferrimagnetic (FM) phase. The critical transition field Hac = 300 A/m was estimated for critical magnetization curve of transition from the metamagnetic behavior to FM behavior of sample. The FM to AFM transition in these ferrites is accompanied by a Néel type to Yafet-Kittel type transition and gradual spin ordering changes of the unit cell volume. The application of an external magnetic field to the low-temperatures AFM state causes the sample to reset to the original FM state.
One of acknowledged methods remarkably improving structural, magnetic and electrical properties of spinel ferrite systems is the substitution of iron ions by some trivalent ions. In the family of spinel ferrites, thanks to its high saturation magnetization and electrical resistivity as well as low losses, the nickel-zinc ferrite is a very important magnetic material used in many applications in electrical engineering and electronics. The properties of these materials are in general dependent upon chemical composition, method of preparation, stoichiometry, sintering time, temperature as well as the atmosphere, etc. In this study the influence of appropriately selected ions (M = In3+, Nd3+, Dy3+ and Er3+), partly replacing Fe3+, on the microstructure and magnetic properties of spinel ferrite with the composition Ni0.42Zn0.58M0.02Fe1.98O4 fabricated by means of standard ceramic technology was investigated.
A comparison of the influence of two alloy pre-treatments and temperature treatments on the formation and composition of zirconium based conversion coating on the AA2024 alloy has been performed. The investigation employed mass changes, atomic force microscopy (AFM), XRD dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and electrochemical tests by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements. Pre-treatment using only alkaline etching is called alkaline pre-treatment. When alkaline etching is followed by de-oxidization in a phosphoric acid solution the process is called acidic pre-treatment. Conversion coatings were formed in Pragokor BL. IR analysis revealed the formation of a phosphate on the alloy surface. EDX analysis showed Mg dissolution. The Zr content increased with the temperature of the conversion coating formation. Both pre-treatment methods provided a phosphate layer on the alloy surface.