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Božena Šoltysová, Ján Hecl, Ladislav Kováč and Martin Danilovič

Abstract

Three plots in Dry Polder Beša in Slovakia (E) and 3 plots in no flooded area (R) were chosen to assess the Cd, Pb and Ni contamination in the soil by using geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and anthropogenic contribution rate (ACR). Heavy metals content was measured at three depths (0‒0.2 m, 0.2‒0.4 m and 0.4‒0.6 m). It was found that the average content of Pb was 1.4 times higher and content of Ni 2.3 times higher at experimental area than at reference area. The average content of Cd were on the same level (E - 0.040 mg/kg, R - 0.041 mg/kg). The variability of heavy metals content in the soil was significantly influenced by soil depth and sampling plot and concentrations significantly correlated with soil organic carbon content (r - in the range of 0.41 to 0.65, p < 0.05). Geo-accumulation index indicates that the soils in the all of studied plots were polluted with respect to Ni, while were unpolluted with respect to Cd and Pb. Cd and Pb occurrence in these soils may be associated to the geochemical weathering. The value of the ACR indicate that anthropogenic input of Ni was 1.331 times higher in flooded area than in reference no flooded area. Different soil types can be arranged in descending Igeo values for Ni as follows: Luvisols ˃ Regosols ˃ Gleysols ˃ Chernozems. It was found that the content of Ni and Pb exceeded the critical values, in relation to transfer of contaminants from the soil to the plant , only at flooded area.

Open access

Danica Fazekašová, Martin Boltižiar, Lenka Bobuľská, Dana Kotorová, Ján Hecl and Zdena Krnáčová

Abstract

Fazekašova D., Boltižiar M., Bobuľska L., Kotorova D., Hecl J., Krnačova Z.: Development of soil parameters and changing landscape structure in conditions of cold mountain climate (case study Liptovska Teplička). Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 197-210, 2013.

Soil physical, chemical and biological properties and the content of heavy metals were investigated between 1997 and 2010 and changing landscape structure was evaluated for years 1948-2010 under production conditions in the investigated area Liptovska Teplička (48° 57´ N; 20° 05´ E), situated in the marginal region of north-eastern Slovakia. Research showed that soil physical properties get adjusted after a long-term application of ecological farming system and the measured values were stabilised. High doses of organic fertilizers had positive effect on soil fertility, and thus indirectly on maintaining soil pH, available nutrients content and accumulation of humus in soil. The values of soil enzymes activities changed minimally during the research period. At the same time, it was proven that increasing the content of soil organic matter promotes natural protection of soil enzymes. This study underscores the importance of long-term, quantitative soil monitoring in determining the changes in agricultural land and ecosystem processes over time. Statistically significant effect of experimental year on all observed soil parameters was confirmed by analysis of variance. Effect of experimental locality, with the exception of pH/CaCl2, Cox and Nanorg, on other soil parameters was also statistically significant. This area represents a specific mountain grassland-arable landscape with conservation of traditional agriculture. The results of this paper also analyse landscape structure changes by using the historical maps and aerial photographs of the past 160 years.