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Open access

Przemysław Busse and Izabella Rząd


The main aim of this study was to evaluate how local pairs of kites behave in the vicinity of two wind farms located in the same region (Saxony, Germany) and at farms which are to be re-powered. We observed three pairs that had located their nests close to active wind farms (a few hundred to 1500 m from the wind farm). Special attention was focused on variation in the intensity of flights and its dependence on the local landscape and to active avoidance of existing wind turbines. Observations were made at the end of the breeding time, when the young were still in the nest and shortly after fledging. Despite the short observation periods, the results seem to show clearly how differentiated the flight patterns of these birds are in relation to the landscape features around the farm. The distance from the nest to the wind farm cannot be the only measure of the level of potential wind-farm-related danger to the birds nesting close to the farm site.

Distribution of flights is not random, but clearly concentrated on defined target hunting areas, while other directions are visited infrequently. In the case of both farms, the farm was rarely crossed by the Black Kites (9.9% of all flights) and very rarely (2.8%) by the Red Kites, and such crossing was observed only while the turbine rotors were not in motion or when the rotors were turning slowly (below 5 turns/min.). It may be advisable to conduct special monitoring of movement patterns at breeding time if kite nests are found close to the planned location of the wind farm.

Open access

Simon Awad and Izabella Rząd


Work begun in autumn 2013 at a research ringing site near Jericho in the Jordan Valley (Palestine) was continued in spring 2014 (8 March–18 April). Due to a flood, the area was much changed in relation to the autumn habitat distribution. Standard ornithological and ringing work was performed using mist nets. The methods used were in accordance with SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network) standards, and apart from ringing included some measurements (wing length, tail length, wing formula) and scores (fat determination and body mass), as well as testing of the directional preferences of migrants. The ornithological work was expanded to include parasitological testing, taking into account migrant-helminth relations during migration. Altogether 508 birds from 44 species were ringed and inspected for external signs of infection by Collyriclum faba trematodes (subcutaneous cysts), and an additional 32 dead individuals were collected and dissected. Altogether 168 internal parasites were found. The most common migrants in spring were Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca, Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida, while the autumn dominants–Masked and Red-backed shrikes (Lanius nubicus and L. collurio) were scarce. In spring a good number of Dead Sea Sparrows Passer moabiticus were caught, but only two introduced Indian Silverbills Lonchura malabarica.

Open access

Simon Awad, Izabella Rząd and Przemysław Busse


A new research project near Jericho in the Jordan Valley (Palestine) was launched on 10 September 2013, work continued until October 23rd 2013. Standard ornithological work and bird ringing work was conducted using mist nets situated in an oasis type habitat of Wadi Qelt surrounded by palm plantations. The field methods followed the SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network) standards that include apart from ringing of captured birds, also several measurements (wing length, tail length, wing formula) and scores (fat load and body mass), as well as the studies on the directional preferences of migrants using round, flat orientation cages. Ornithological research was enhanced by parasitological studies analysing migratory birds (hosts) - helminths relations during migration period of the former. This was a part of complex studies covering the Middle East and north African ringing sites. Altogether 481 individuals of birds representing 59 species were ringed and about 50 were retrapped. The most interesting was relatively high share of Masked and Red-backed shrikes as well as good number of birds of local species as Dead Sea Sparrows and introduced Indian Silverbills.