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  • Author: Izabela Rącka x
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In this paper, the specificity of release and transformation processes of real estate markets in two postsocialist bloc countries, i.e. Bulgaria and Poland, was diagnosed. Comparative analysis of the conditions and directions of change was used as a tool to clarify the current situation, current status and characteristics of these markets. Comparison of Poland and Bulgaria also indicates the prospects for the development of real estate markets. The article is an attempt at assessing the condition and evolutionary progress of the residential segment. The authors also selected obstacles and factors promoting the development of real estate markets in the analyzed countries. This will either enable the critical assessment of changes observed in the past, or prove helpful in the context forecasting market phenomena.


The research discussed in the article focuses on public space in urban areas and revitalization activities carried out by local governments. The goals of the paper are to identify the conditions and opportunities for the development of public space by local governments of Bulgaria and Poland, to find regularities (similarities and differences) and to assess the actions taken. The specific objective is to illustrate the process of planning and managing selected large revitalization investments in urban public spaces in Bulgaria and Poland. The research methods used comprise the analysis of literature, including official documents and acts of law and case studies.

The paper analyzes the conditions and manifestations of activities taken by local governments regarding investment in public space (development and revitalization of public space programs and investing in real estate) in Bulgaria and Poland, using examples from selected cities. The authors selected two comparable urban areas: Varna in Bulgaria and Poznań in Poland, chosen intentionally due to the similarity of the two post-socialist bloc countries and the availability of information. Bulgarian and Polish state law and various acts of local law were analyzed. The experimental part of the publication introduces case studies of investments in the revitalization of real estate in public space managed by the local governments. It shows examples of projects which are relevant to the development of the cities under study.


The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

The main goal of this article is conducting research on the operational rules of the real estate appraiser profession and property appraisal methods. The detailed objectives include: a critical comparative analysis of the solutions used in the above-mentioned countries, searching for interesting, unusual methodological propositions, and presenting a current assessment of the applied property appraisal methodology.

The foremost methods used in this article are: the analysis of legislative instruments, the analysis of literature concerning property appraisal methodology in Poland and Slovakia, and a questionnaire (CAWI and PAPI technique). Complementary knowledge was derived from official government internet portals and trade associations dealing with property appraisals. A comparative analysis was the basis for conducting research on the similarities and differences in the studied countries.


The understanding of price-setting attributes operating on local real estate market is not only an essential element of property appraisers’ work, it can also greatly assist the professional activities of real estate agents. However, its primary importance is for the market – facilitating the decision-making processes of developers (developers become aware of the buyers’ expectations and preferences, making it possible to more accurately form market offers and pricing strategy).

With the use of computer-assisted interviewing, a questionnaire was designed to find out students’ preferences in the housing market of large Polish cities. The research was undertaken at six universities: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poznan University of Economics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, and President Stanislaw Wojciechowski Higher Vocational State School in Kalisz. At each university, the survey was carried out on two groups of students: one included those who had chosen specializations related to the real estate market, the other one – students who did not explore the subject of the real estate market in their field of studies.

The research can make a significant contribution to the problems of real estate market analysis. The results are the first part of a broader concept of research, which ultimately aims to internationalize the findings.


Large Polish cities are currently dealing with an increasing significance of downtown areas, extending outside of the city centers (meaning the area directly surrounding the city square). The downtown alone seems to influence the fate of entire cities, facilitating their success or contributing to their failure. A good demographic, social and economic condition of a downtown, its positive image and the dynamic development of the part of the city perceived as the business and administration centre and a meeting place of residents and tourists, contribute to the image and potential of the whole city to a great extent. Changes in urban surroundings, the signs of which may be observed in spatial, aesthetic, architectural, urban-planning and socio-economic aspects, determine the functioning and condition of local real estate markets. Whether potential buyers consider the real estate attractive depends on the assessment of its significant features, of which transaction price is representative. The main research objective of the article is the identification, assessment and interpretation of differences in prices registered in the years 2009-2014 in downtown residential real estate markets. These considerations have been referred to analogical phenomena within the entire cities under examination. The detailed research objective is an attempt to explain the sources of individual reactions of the analyzed real estate markets in downtown areas. The cities under research include: Bydgoszcz, Kalisz, Toruń and Wrocław. The authors applied quantitative analysis (statistical, comparative) to transaction data registered in local residential real estate markets.