This paper describes essence of work of offshore wind power electric plants and crucial aspects of their building and operating. Prospects for development of global, European and domestic markets of offshore wind power industry have been delineated. A comparative analysis of environmental impact of an offshore and land-based 2MW wind power electric plant has been performed by using LCA method and Ecoindex – 99 (Ekowskaźnik 99) modelling.
In recent years, the offshore wind power industry has been growing dynamically. A key element which decides upon power output of a wind power plant is blades. They are most frequently produced from polymers – laminates with epoxy resins and fiberglass. In the near future, when the blade life cycles are over, large amounts of waste material of this type will have to be reused. This paper presents a comparison analysis of the impact of particular material existence cycle stages of land-based and offshore wind power plant blades on the environment. Two wind power plant blades, of about 49 m in length each, were examined using the LCA method, the programme SimaPro, and Ekowskaźnik 99 modelling (phase LCIA).
On average, there are about 60 kg of rubber in a passenger car, about 67% of which are tires, about 20% of all kinds body seals, doors and windows, suspension elements amount to 5%, the rest are other elements related to the engine (seals, hoses, wires, pads, etc.). Rubber waste is too valuable resource to direct to landfills. The vast majority of recovery of used tires in Poland (over 70%) is carried out by burning tires with energy recovery. Tires in the form of granulate, mixed with coal dust, are burn in some combined heat and power plants. The paper presents results of experimental studies of possible use for energy purposes, granules and pyrolysis oil the resulting from discarded car tires for increasing ecological and energy safety. Energy properties of granulates and pyrolysis oil were investigated and the shape and size of granulate particles were analyzed. For this purpose, digital image processing (CAMSIZER device) and calorimeter were used. It was found that the products of tire recycling decommissioned from exploitationare the high-energy material with good calorific value. Based on the results of experimental studies, application conditions of rubber waste for energy purposes was formulated.
This paper describes identification and components of destructiveness of energy, economic and ecologic profits and outlays during life cycle of offshore wind electric power plants as well as the most useful models for their design, assembly and use. There are characterized technical conditions (concepts, structures, processes) indispensable for increasing profits and/or decreasing energy, economic and ecological outlays on their operation as well as development prospects for global, European and domestic markets of offshore wind electric power industry. A preliminary analysis was performed for an impact of operators, processed objects, living and artificial environmental objects of a 2MW wind electric power plant on possible increase of profits and decrease of outlays as a result of compensation of destructiveness of the system, environment and man.