Geographic information systems (GIS) and their tools support the process of real estate trading. Of key importance is the ability to visualise information about real estate in the form of maps of average real estate transaction prices. The following study presents a methodology for mapping average real estate transaction prices using GIS. The map development process comprised three main stages. In the first stage, the input data was processed and statistically analysed. Official data came from the Register of Real Estate Prices and Values, and open data from the National Register of Boundaries. The second stage involved the visualization of the data in the form of maps of average apartment prices using the cartographic methods of choropleth maps and diagrams. The commercial tool ArcMap 10.3 and the free Quantum GIS software were used in the design of the maps of average real estate transaction prices, to check the options for using these types of programs. As a result, eight maps were designed presenting the average transaction prices for residential properties in the Warsaw district of Ursynów in 2015. The final stage was the analysis of the designed maps. The influence of the selection of the reference units on the visualization content, and the impact of combining cartographic presentation methods on the complexity of the presentation of real estate information, were also analysed.
The presented research concerns the methodology for selecting settlements and road networks from 1:250 000 to 1:500 000 and 1:1 000 000 scales. The developed methodology is based on the provisions of the Regulation of the Ministry of Interior from 17 November 2011. The correctness of the generalization principles contained in the Regulation has not yet been verified. Thus this paper aims to fulfil this gap by evaluating map specifications concerning settlement and road network generalizations.
The goal was to automate the selection process by using formalized cartographic knowledge. The selection operators and their parameters were developed and implemented in the form of a generalization model. The input data was the General Geographic Object Database (GGOD), whose detail level corresponds to 1:250 000 scale. The presented research is in line with works on the automation of GGOD generalization performed by the National Mapping Agency (NMA) in Poland (GUGiK). The paper makes the following contributions. First, the selection methodology contained in the Regulation was formalised and presented in the form of a knowledge base. Second, the models for the generalization process were developed. The developed methodology was evaluated by generalizing the settlements and roads in the test area. The results of the settlement and road network generalization for both 1:500 000 and 1:1 000 000 detail levels were compared with the maps designed manually by experienced cartographers.
The presented research concerning the landscape evolution of the area of the Kazimierski Landscape Park assumed the analysis of landscape changes that took place in the western part of the Nałęczów Plateau in eastern Poland as a result of increased anthropopressure. To achieve this goal, the diverse data was employed: archives of the “Archeological Survey of Poland” obtained from the National Heritage Board of Poland, the registry data from the 16th century made available as part of the “Atlas Fontium” project elaborated by the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, old map of the Western Galicia from 1808, a tactical map of the Military Geographical Institute in Warsaw from 1937, and the “Topographic Objects Database” (BDOT10k) obtained from the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. Based on the analysed data, maps presenting the development of the settlement network from the moment of permanent settlement of the area up to the present state and maps showing the changes in land use in the Kazimierski Landscape Park over the last centuries have been designed.
The results of historical and geographical analyses carried out as part of the research were compared with the results of geomorphological research conducted in the studied area. Verification of the obtained results allowed to determine the scope in which man influenced the evolution of the landscape of the analysed area, including its diversification depending on the historical period and the type of the economy. The process of georeferencing the map of Western Galicia elaborated by colonel A.M. von Heldensfeld from 1808 and the tactical map 1:100,000 of Military Geographical Institute from 1937 covering the research area (14,974 ha) was carried out in the ArcGIS Desktop software. The calibration process was evaluated in the Map Analyst program which makes it possible to analyze the distortions of old maps. Then, vectorization of selected terrain coverage classes and visualization of spatial data were conducted. This way, the land use maps were analyzed in terms of environmental changes that occurred over the past centuries by identifying the areas with the largest development changes. The obtained results were compared with the database of historical objects created for the purposes of this research, based on data provided by the National Heritage Board of Poland and the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences in order to determine the development trends of the settlement network in the region. The additional statistical analysis made it possible to determine the trend of changes and to interpret the distribution of areas threatened by the occurrence of mass movements with the analyzed anthropogenic determinants.
Katarzyna Medolińska, Izabela Gołębiowska and Izabela Karsznia
Of the numerous applications of GIS, administration and public services count among the main fields of application. They are both the users and the owners of the largest amount of spatial data. Portals for higher authorities have been the subject of extensive discussions, but the development and possible use of GIS systems in the form of geoportals at local levels still seems to have been insufficiently discussed. This article presents the process of designing and developing a portal for the lowest authorities - local authorities and the local community. A small town in Poland, Sokółka, was assumed as the study area. The concept development was preceded by, among others: recognition of the needs of an administrative unit in conducting spatial policy; establishment of the objectives, functionalities and assumptions of the designed GIS; a SWOT analysis of the designed geoportal; and an analysis of data resources. Pilot implementation was completed with an evaluation of the geoportal encompassing various groups of potential users.
Wiesław Ostrowski, Izabela Karsznia and Tomasz Panecki
Built-up area is a particularly important element of the content of topographic maps. Its presentation changes significantly when map scales are reduced, due to both conceptual and graphic generalization. What is more, historically, changes in the depiction of built-up area were consequences of changes in the intended use of topographic maps, development of technology and changes in the cultural landscape, of which the built-up area is an important component.1
The authors describe the method of presentation of built-up areas on six Polish topographic maps or series of maps. The above-mentioned maps include the following:
– Topograficzna Karta Królestwa Polskiego (Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom) at the scale of 1:126,000 developed in 1822–1843;
– topographic maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (MGI) at the scales of 1:25,000 and 1:100,000, published in 1930s;
– a series of military maps (or military-civilian maps) at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000, developed in 1956–1989, in accordance with the instruction for developing Soviet maps;
– a series of civilian maps at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 developed after 1995.
The basis for a quantitative comparison of the content of the maps was the number of categories of objects (identifications) which constitute part of built-up area and are presented on individual maps as symbols, as well as the number of characteristics represented by these symbols. These characteristics are divided into two basic types: functional characteristics and physiognomic characteristics.
The analysis shows that military maps issued after the Second World War differ from the civilian maps, as they contain a much larger share of physiognomic characteristics, which is caused mainly from the fact that the vast majority of military maps distinguish between wooden and brick buildings. This difference was to large extent already noticeable among the oldest of the analysed maps – the Quartermaster’s Map and nineteenth-century Russian maps, which were partly modelled on the Quartermaster’s Map, and later also Soviet maps. Due to political reasons, the model of these Soviet maps was later adopted for the development of post-war Polish military maps. Out of all maps drawn up by military services, the inter-war MGI map serves special attention, as it was modelled on German maps. The main difference between military and civilian maps is foremost the fact that civilian maps include more functional characteristics of buildings and take into consideration new physiognomic characteristics related to residential development (compact, dense, multifamily dwellings, single family dwellings).
The analysed maps include not only the characteristics of buildings and built-up area, but also information on the features of the town – population size, number of village houses and the administrative function.
Maciej Góraj, Marcin Kucharski, Krzysztof Karsznia, Izabela Karsznia and Jarosław Chormański
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the changes in the hydrographic network of Słowiński National Park. The authors analysed the changes occurring in the drainage network due to limited maintenance in this legally protected natural area. To accomplish this task, elaborations prepared on the basis of aerial photographs were used: an orthophoto map from 1996, hyperspectral imaging from June 2015, and a digital terrain model based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) from June 2015. These spatial data resources enabled the digitisation of the water courses for which selected hydro-morphological features had been defined. As a result of analysing the differences of these features, a quality map was elaborated which was then subjected to interpretation, and the identified changes were quantified in detail.