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  • Author: Izabela Ciesielska-Wrobel x
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Both loop fancy yarns and frotte fancy yarns belong to the group of yarns with continuous effects. The difference between frotte and loop yarn relies on the fact that the loop yarn is constructed with two core yarns and the frotte yarn is constructed with only one core yarn. The differences are evident in the shape of these two types of fancy yarns. These shape differences are the functions of the tensions of component yarns during the twisting process. The shape and construction of the fancy yarn influence its properties. The properties of loop and frotte fancy yarns, woven and knitted fabrics are compared in this article in order to find out the optimal yarn’s and fabric’s production condition to satisfy the final user and maintain low production costs. In terms of economy aspects only, the frotte fancy yarns are believed to be cheaper in production due to lower quantity of components utilize for their production to compare with loop fancy yarns, under conditions of the same settings of ring twisting frame.


Protective and sport clothing is governed by protection requirements, performance, and comfort of the user. The comfort and impact performance of protective and sport clothing are typically subjectively measured, and this is a multifactorial and dynamic process. The aim of this review paper is to review the contemporary methodologies and approaches for measuring ergonomic wear comfort, including objective and subjective techniques. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of different methods, such as objective techniques, subjective techniques, and a combination of techniques, as well as a new biomechanical approach called modeling of skin. Literature indicates that there are four main techniques to measure wear comfort: subjective evaluation, objective measurements, a combination of subjective and objective techniques, and computer modeling of human–textile interaction. In objective measurement methods, the repeatability of results is excellent, and quantified results are obtained, but in some cases, such quantified results are quite different from the real perception of human comfort. Studies indicate that subjective analysis of comfort is less reliable than objective analysis because human subjects vary among themselves. Therefore, it can be concluded that a combination of objective and subjective measuring techniques could be the valid approach to model the comfort of textile materials.