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Open access

Iwona Strzelecka, Maciej Słodki, Andrzej Zieliński, Iwona Maroszyńska and Maria Respondek-Liberska



Prenatal diagnosis is an integral part of modern perinatal care. In the article results of questionnaires pertaining to the prenatal process of diagnosis are presented. Parents whose children were afflicted with congenital malformations of all types responded to enquiry

Materials and methods:

Between March 2014 and March 2015 150 of 355 infants were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care and Congenital Malformations in Łódź, and 150 had congenital malformations.


101 parents of 150 children (67,3%) have given the feedback. Anomalies were such as: of the digestive system (37%), CHD (25%), OUN (14 %), genito-urinary (13%), skeletal system (9%) and respiratory system (2%). In 65 children of 101 the defects were detected prenatally. The obstetric US exam was the most frequently pointed out as performed (more than 1200). The biochemical markers and genetic tests in were performed in 34 pregnancies. The high percentage of ability to detect malformation was reported in the group of fetal echo examinations.


1. Prenatal ultrasound exams were the least effective method of making appropriate prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation.

2. Fetal echocardiography had a high level of sensitivity and specificity in detecting congenital malformations.

3. Prenatal cardiologists proved to be the most effective in detecting congenital malformations 89,3 % of detected abnormalities.

4. Biochemical exams had a positive result in only one case of Down Syndrome.

Open access

Iwona Strzelecka, Maciej Słodki, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora, Michał Krekora, Mariusz Grzesiak, Iwona Maroszyńska and Maria Respondek-Liberska


Introduction: Congenital heart defects are the most frequent reason for deaths during the neonatal and early infancy periods. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze singleton pregnancy outcomes of premature neonates with congenital cardiac defects delivered by Cesarean section. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 10,800 fetuses evaluated in our referral fetal cardiac center between 2010 and 2016. A group of 58 singleton pregnancies was selected with the following criteria: fetal heart defect, Cesarean section (C-section), and gestation of 37 weeks or less. Exclusion criteria included labor outside of our hospital and multiple pregnancy. Results: Isolated heart defects constituted 74,1% (43 cases) of the analysed data set. The majority of newborns were delivered at 36 weeks of gestation (43,1%), with an average of 33,6 weeks. In one case (1,7%), C-section took place at 22nd week. Birth weight of newborns < 2500g constituted 51,7% (30 cases). Neonatal deaths occurred in 60,3% (35 cases). Conclusions: Preterm neonates with congenital heart defect, delivered by C-section in our reference centre, during 2010 to 2016, had generally poor outcomes and high mortality rate. The average hospital stay of surviving neonates was approximately two months. An improvement of knowledge about prenatal cardiology is necessary in obstetrician management with fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

Open access

Maria Respondek-Liberska, Łukasz Sokołowski, Maciej Słodki, Katarzyna Zych-Krekora, Iwona Strzelecka, Michał Krekora, Iwona Maroszyńska, Jadwiga Moll and Jacek Moll


Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a congenital heart defect (CHD), in which all pulmonary veins connect to the systemic veins or to the right atrium/coronary sinus instead of the left atrium. We present a case report of fetus with prenatally diagnosed isolated infracardiac type of TAPVC in 38th week of gestation. In fetal echocardiographic examination performed in the Department of Prenatal Cardiology, the fetus presented lack of visible pulmonary veins connection to left atrium, abnormal venous confluence behind left atrium, additional vein leading from abdominal cavity to mediastinum and abnormal smooth Doppler blood flow in pulmonary confluence. The accurate prenatal diagnosis allowed to deliver the neonate at term, in tertiary center one day after diagnosis, and to perform surgical reposition of pulmonary veins the following day. The neonate was referred home in a good condition after 28 days of hospitalization. This case is a good example of the value of the 3rd trimester echocardiography.

Open access

Krzysztof Czajkowski, Ewa Helwich, Krzysztof Preis, Mariusz Grzesiak, Michał Krekora, Ewa Gulczyńska, Katarzyna Kornacka, Krzysztof Zeman, Iwona Maroszyńska and Maria Respondek-Liberska


On 27.10.2017, in the course of the CARDIO-PRENATAL Conference at the Polish Mother’s Memorial Institute and Health Centre in Lodz, we presented, among others, the following problems:

classification of prenatal heart defects, fetal hemodynamic status evaluation in the third trimester, expected neonate’s clinical condition, planned procedures to be conducted just after birth and also planned medical staff to be present in the delivery room. Here are our main recommendations following the meeting and discussion.

Open access

Michał Krekora, Mariusz Grzesiak, Maciej Słodki, Ewa Gulczyńska, Iwona Maroszyńska, Maria Respondek-Liberska, Frank A. Chervenak and Laurence B. McCullough


INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to present our current practice of counseling patients and families with the most severe congenital malformations in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and to develop practical guidelines for our team and involved healthcare/ socialcare professionals. MATERIAL & METHODS: It was a retrospective evaluation of a series of fetal cases in 2017 from single tertiary center. Maternal obstetrical medical history, time of prenatal detection of the anomaly (1st, 2nd or 3rd trimester), time between last fetal echocardiography and delivery, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and time of neonatal demise. The total study group was subdived into early demise (during the 1st day after delivery) or late demise > 1st day after delivery. RESULTS: Mean maternal age was 30,4 +/- 5,6 years, and varied between 26 and 38 years. No chronic maternal diseases were found in medical history and no congenital malformations were present in previous children. All women had 1st trimester ultrasound, in 9 cases, it was reported as normal (with NT measurement < 2 mm), in 2 cases extracardiac abnormalities were detected: diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele ( in both fetal karyotype 46,XY). In nine cases, the abnormalities were detected in midgestation and with maternal wish to continue the pregnancies. There were 8 neonatal deaths within 60 minutes after delivery, including one intrapartum death and 3 “late” neonatal deaths in the intensive care unit (on 12th, 21st and 22nd day). We stress upon the prenatal team approach and counseling of future parents, in order to prepare them for poor neonatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: 1. In the most severe cases when fetal or neonatal demise was suspected, the two different opinions of specialists might not be enough and a third opinion should be recommended before final decision. 2. A Fetal Team of specialists is necessary in cases of expected fetal/neonatal demise in order to prepare a written report of recommended perinatal management for all sides involved in this difficult problem.