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Open access

Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to present opportunities for using landscape metrics to evaluate geodiversity on individual landscape levels. The research area is located to the west of the Płock Urban and Industrial Agglomeration in Poland. Within this area, hierarchically organized regional units were delimited (Richling, Malinowska, Szumacher 2013). The area is divided into 87 first-level regions, 36 second-level regions and 9 third-level regions. The units have been treated as basic fields for geodiversity analysis purposes using selected landscape measures and metrics, to include area, density, size, edges and diversity (among others, Shannon’s Diversity Index (SDI), Shannon’s Evenness Index (SEI), domination (D) and redundancy (R)) generated in Patch Analyst v. 5, Fragstats v. 4.0, ArcGIS v.10 and Statistica v. 10 software.

Open access

Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher

Abstract

This paper discusses recreational use of protected land with the example of Las Kabacki, a forest located in the southern part of Warsaw, in the vicinity of the district of Ursynów. The area has been excluded from traditional forest cultivation since 1938. From 1980 onwards it has enjoyed the status of a reserve due to its natural resources and scenic attributes. Highly developed and densely populated residential areas (Natolin-Wyżyny and Kabaty) lie adjacent to the northern border of the forest. For their inhabitants, Las Kabacki is a key recreational area. This results in a functional and spatial conflict of interests between nature protection objectives on the one hand and the recreational needs of inhabitants on the other hand. To find the answer to the question of how to match the interests of a natural reserve with leisure requirements, users of Las Kabacki were asked for their opinions regarding the following issues: the natural values of the reserve and their perception, forms of preferred recreational behaviour in the reserve, awareness of threats to the natural environment in the reserve arising from anthropogenic pressure, readiness to resign from preferred forms of leisure in favour of protecting nature, and possibilities for eliminating the conflict of interests between the recreational use of the reserve and protection of its natural values. Also, two SWOT analyses were carried out aimed at determining a nature conservation strategy in the reserve as well as its leisure use.

Open access

Ewa Kawalec-Kajstura, Iwona Malinowska-Lipien and Tomasz Brzostek

Abstract

Introduction. A systematic increase in the frequency of excessive body mass in young Poles is an argument supporting the need for identification persons with the increased risk. It is justified to test the level of comparability of the applied screening methods and criteria of diagnosing excessive body mass and body fat in the adolescent group.

Aim. To assess the comparability of the results in terms of frequency of diagnosing of overweight and body fat excessive content depending on the method and assessment criteria in 18-year-olds.

Material and methods. The study comprised 141 secondary school students (100 women and 41 men), with the age median of 17.8 ± 0.5 years. The measurements included height and body mass (to calculate the BMI) and assessment of the percentage of body fat content with two methods of bioelectric impedance in two bipolar versions: Tanita BC-570 and Omron BF-306.

Results. Excessive body mass, as defined by the BMI, was found in 12.1% of students. The incidence of diagnosing excessive contents of body fat in the organism depended on the method of measurement and criteria of results interpretation; 20.6% with the Tanita and 28.3% with the Omron method. The measurements with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI value (p<0.001; r2=0.34) than measurements with the Omron BF-306 (p<0.001; r2=0.16).

Conclusions. In young adults: 1. the diagnosis of excessive body mass by BMI and measurement with use of the bioelectric impedance methods with two bipolar versions (Tanita BC-570, Omron BF-306) provided inconsistent results. 2. The proportion of young people with excessive body fat was greater than indicated by the BMI norms. 3. The measurement with Tanita BC-570 scales demonstrated stronger correlation with BMI values than by the ones with the Omron. 4. Critical approach to the applied methods is indispensable in screening studies of nutrition level among adolescents.

Open access

Małgorzata Murat, Iwona Malinowska, Holger Hoffmann and Piotr Baranowski

Abstract

Meteorological time series are used in modelling agrophysical processes of the soil-plant-atmosphere system which determine plant growth and yield. Additionally, long-term meteorological series are used in climate change scenarios. Such studies often require forecasting or projection of meteorological variables, eg the projection of occurrence of the extreme events. The aim of the article was to determine the most suitable exponential smoothing models to generate forecast using data on air temperature, wind speed, and precipitation time series in Jokioinen (Finland), Dikopshof (Germany), Lleida (Spain), and Lublin (Poland). These series exhibit regular additive seasonality or non-seasonality without any trend, which is confirmed by their autocorrelation functions and partial autocorrelation functions. The most suitable models were indicated by the smallest mean absolute error and the smallest root mean squared error.

Open access

Maria Szpetnar, Anna Hordyjewska, Iwona Malinowska, Piotr Golab and Jacek Kurzepa

Abstract

Currently, little data exists regarding the involvement of free amino acids (AA) in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). Thus, our objective was to study the degree of the degree of fluctuation of free amino acids level in serum during the acute phase of IS. The study consisted of eighteen patients (female/male: 10/8; age: 73.1 ± 4.1) with acute IS that was confirmed by way of computed tomography, while twelve sex and age matched individuals were assigned as control group. During the study period, the patients did not receive any supplemental amino acids therapy that could affect the obtained results. The venous blood was obtained after >3 hours fasting at two time-points; time-point 1 – at admission to the hospital; time-point 2 – on day 5 from stroke onset. The blood for control purposes was collected only once, and the blood collection at time-point 1 was done before thrombolytic treatment (nine patients). The amino acids were identified using the Amino Acids Analyser (AAA 400) by INGOS Corp., Praha, Czech Republic. Our results revealed a statistically significant increase of glutamate, cystine and methionine on day 1 of stroke, in comparison to control, whereas, proline level was decreased on day 1 of stroke – in comparison to control serum. On comparing day 5 to the initial day of IS, elevation was observed of levels of asparagine, glycine, tyrosine, arginine, threonine, valine, leucine and phenylalanine. It can be said, then, that ischemic stroke induces both essential and nonessential amino acid fluctuations. Moreover, the decrease in proline and glutamine serum level with the simultaneous increase in the concentration of branch chain amino acids, Glu and Thr suggests a violent mobilization of the body’s proteins. Thus, a decrease of Pro and a simultaneous increase of Glu serum level could be considered as a marker of acute IS.

Open access

Małgorzata Murat, Iwona Malinowska, Magdalena Gos and Jaromir Krzyszczak

Abstract

The daily air temperature and precipitation time series recorded between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2010 in four European sites (Jokioinen, Dikopshof, Lleida and Lublin) from different climatic zones were modeled and forecasted. In our forecasting we used the methods of the Box-Jenkins and Holt- Winters seasonal auto regressive integrated moving-average, the autoregressive integrated moving-average with external regressors in the form of Fourier terms and the time series regression, including trend and seasonality components methodology with R software. It was demonstrated that obtained models are able to capture the dynamics of the time series data and to produce sensible forecasts.

Open access

Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher

Abstract

The concept of catena in landscape surveys is used to demonstrate the surroundings of landscape units, their vertical structure and inter-unit processes, as well as the mosaic nature of the landscape. Furthermore, it reflects the structural and functional heterogeneity of the surveyed area, at the same time indicating types of links between landscape units, depending on a variety of geological, habitat-related and biotic conditions, including land use and its transformation arising from anthropopressure.

The catena survey performed included four key morphological and lithological units with varied landscape structure and functioning: glacial upland, vast outwash plains, the Wisła River valley and deepened channel valleys, as well as dune hills and hillocks. The results prove that the functioning of landscape systems depends on the forms of land use and their durability. Characteristics of leading components in catenas are diverse despite a similar genesis of landforms and relief shaping processes.

Open access

Andrzej Richling, Ewa Malinowska and Iwona Szumacher

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to represent the hierarchical structure of an environment by using two concepts: typology and regionalization. The Płock Region (1,766.95 sq. km) and transect crossing this area (796.2 sq. km) is the research location. It was divided into 710 individual landscape units (319 in the transect border). The existing physical-geographical regionalization, including macro-, meso- and micro-regions, was elaborated using a deductive (top-down) method, which was supplemented by a more detailed regionalization, obtained by an inductive (bottom-up) method called analysis of borders (Richling 1976). The study area was divided into more detailed sub-regions: first-level regions (87 units), second-level regions (36 units) and third-level regions (9 units). In fact, the landscape structure of third-level regions is similar to micro-regions. This is proof of the complementary nature of the two approaches – deductive and inductive regionalization, and the hierarchical landscape structure.