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  • Author: Iwona Bąk x
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The Use of the Correspondence Analysis in the Research of the Tourist Activity of University Students

Tourist activity and travel constitute the function of the people's quality of life and indicate the level of civilizational development of the country. Tourism of young people has its separate, specific place in the trends in contemporary tourism. Students constitute a social group that has substantial free time resources at hand, and therefore, form one of the most touristically active society groups. This articles aims at analyzing tourist activity of Szczecin universities students, and in particular, in detecting the relations between the variables characterizing their holiday. Simple statistic methods in the field of structure analysis and multidimensional correspondence analysis were used as a scientific tool. The Correspondence Analysis module of STATISTICA 8.0 package was used for the purpose of calculations and graphic presentation.

Tourist Activity of Pensioners in Poland in 2009: A Statistical Analysis

The purpose of the article is the analysis of transitory pensioners touristics departures. The research was carried out basing on a representative research result of individual transitory domestic departures in 2009 where pensioners participated in. As investigative instrument the autor chose the multidimensional correspondence analysis. The results of research were presented in a tridimensional area. The Ward's method was used in research due to bif number of variants of analyzed variables. This method permitted the assignment of coherence between variable variants.


The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of various methods of selection of diagnostic features on the sensitivity of classification. Three options of feature selection are presented: a parametric feature selection method with a sum (option I), a median of the correlation coefficients matrix column elements (option II) and the method of a reversed matrix (option III). Efficiency of the groupings was verified by the indicators of homogeneity, heterogeneity and the correctness of grouping. In the assessment of group efficiency the approach with the Weber median was used. The undertaken problem was illustrated with a research into the tourist attractiveness of voivodships in Poland in 2011.


Introduction. The attractiveness and quality of spending free time are becoming more and more important. Its crucial elements are recreation and culture which contribute to the development of interests and personality, an increase in physical activity, the discharge of nervous tension and the prevention of lifestyle diseases. The use of recreation and culture depends on many factors. For the authors, it is particularly interesting to check the level and structure of spending on recreation and tourism in relation to age. Therefore, the purpose of the article was to compare the spending on recreation and culture in two groups of households. The first concerned households where the head of the household was at most 35 years old, while the other group included households of the elderly.

Material and methods. The analysis of household expenditure in 2018 on recreation and culture, including organized tourism, was based on a set of unitary unidentifiable data on household budgets, which were made available by the Central Statistical Office for a fee. The basic descriptive parameters of the structure analysis and a power-exponential econometric model were used in the research.

Results. The financial situation of the household has the greatest impact on the formation of expenditure related to free time, regardless of the age of the household head. The number of people in the household is also important, which is particularly evident in the case of young households, but it is also important in 60+ households, as they are more willing to enjoy recreation and culture in the company of other people of the household. The education of the head of the household significantly affects spending on recreation and culture only among 60+ households.

Conclusion. The results of the research presented in this article prove that the level of expenditure on recreation and culture depends on socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, income, place of residence, etc.


The aim of the study is to determine the pace and directions of changes (understood as: improvement or deterioration) occurring in selected areas of sustainable development of EU Member States. The paper analyzes dynamics of changes in selected areas of sustainable development monitored on the basis of headline indicators published by Eurostat from 2008 to 2015. In the paper, three variants of reference points of synthetic measure of development were considered. On the basis of the obtained results, the countries in which the improvement in the sustainable development and its deterioration can be observed were identified. The results have confirmed the existence of significant developmental disparities between EU Member States in this field, but it should be noted that the obtained results depend on the methodological approach both to the selection of features and the adoption of a specific standardization formula, as well as the considered variants of reference points. The results obtained can be utilized in subsequent years to examine the directions of change observed both from the point of view of European Union as one organization, and the individual EU Member States.


The main purpose of the paper is an expert assessment of the relationship existing between selected indicators carried out using a relatively new tool in economic sciences: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. The effect of its application is a graphical presentation of the relationship between the factors identified as the key ones. In the paper 23 indicators, describing four selected goals in the Strategy for Sustainable Development, 2030 Agenda were selected. It is assumed that the sustainable development goals should be related but according to the experts opinion this only applies to some indicators. This kind of relationships can be certainly identified in the case of the goals describing social and economic development, but often also economic and environmental development. However, the research results presented in the paper do not always confirm the existence of connections between individual indicators selected for the description of the goals of sustainable development. The paper tries to explain this problem.


Research background: The study was conducted and based on the project The assessment of mental condition, financed by the Ministry of Health as part of the National Health Program for 2016–2020 (operational objective 3: Prevention of mental health problems and improvement of mental well-being of society). The article focuses on a group of teachers and university lecturers from eight voivodeships selected for the study, whereas burnout was selected from the areas of mental disorders.

Purpose: The main objective of the study was to identify the regularities in the relationship between the level of professional burnout and selected demographic characteristics in the group of teachers and university lecturers. Additionally, the spatial diversity of the percentage of respondents diagnosed with occupational burnout was examined.

Research methodology: Two methods from the multi-dimensional statistical analysis were used: a classification tree analysis, and a correspondence analysis.

Results: The methods used allowed to classify the studied professional group in terms of the degree of occupational burnout. The results obtained using both the classification trees and multidimensional correspondence analysis allowed the identification of similar regularities regarding the impact of demographic variables on the level of occupational burnout.

Novelty: The application of multidimensional statistical analysis methods to study mental health based on individual, unique data from eight Polish voivodeships.


The article attempts to compare the living conditions of the population living in rural communities of West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The analysis used data for 159 indicators in the following areas of life: natural environment, demographics, social aspects, municipal infrastructure and housing, economic aspects, education and schooling, culture and tourism, and transport. The application of a multi-criteria taxonomy method allowed the author to take into account all the spheres of life altogether and to differentiate a group of voivodeships that are similar in terms of the examined phenomenon. On the basis of the conducted study it was found that Poland’s regions demonstrate a high degree of differences in terms of the objective quality of life.