Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author: Iwona Żur x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Ewa Dubas, Maria Wędzony, Beata Petrovska, Jan Salaj and Iwona Żur

Cell Structural Reorganization During Induction of Androgenesis in Isolated Microspore Cultures of Triticale (xTriticosecale Wittm.)

Upon stress treatment, isolated microspores of triticale (xTriticosecale Wittm.) were directed towards sporophytic development (androgenesis). We used fluorescence microscopy to study the cell structural reorganization associated with the process. Changes in the developmental pathway coincided with the character of the microtubular cytoskeleton configuration, the number and direction of nuclear divisions, changes in vacuolization, the distribution of mitochondria, ER and starch grains, and the architecture of new cell wall formation. A band of diffused fluorescence surrounding the nucleus was observed before the first symmetric division of microspores. This structure most likely represents a preprophase band (PPB). Successive mitotic divisions within the microspore wall led to the formation of multinucleate or multicellular structures consisting of one or two domains of cells differing in size. They were later released from the sporoderm and continued further development with features typical for a monocotyledonous embryo. The pattern of internal architecture of androgenic structures depended on their developmental phase. Before and after release from the microspore wall, cortical microtubules (MTs) exhibited various configurations without preferential orientation. They formed a denser network in the region opposite to the sporoderm rupture site. Released multicellular structures showed both intensely fluorescing cortical MTs and more dispersed endoplasmic MTs radiating along the cytoplasmic strands from the nuclear region to the cell cortex. Up to globular stage, isotropically expanding cells of androgenic embryos showed a random pattern of MTs. This is the first report that successive events of androgenic development of triticale microspores are associated with MT reorganization. The results support the view that changes in cytoskeleton architecture are critical during induction of androgenesis.

Open access

Jana Moravčíková, Denisa Margetínyová, Zdenka Gálová, Iwona Žur, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Eva Boszorádová and Ildikó Matušíková

Abstract

The (1,3)-β-D-glucan also referred to as callose is a main component of cell walls of higher plants. Many physiological processes are associated with the changes in callose deposition. Callose is synthesised by the callose synthase complex while its degradation is regulated by the hydrolytic enzymes β-1,3-glucanases. The latter one specifically degrade (1,3)-β-D-glucans. This work is aimed to study β-1,3-glucanase activities in the leaves of plants at two leaf stage in two diploids (Agilops tauschii, Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrica, Ae. triuncialis, T. araraticum, T. dicoccum) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L, T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative β-1,3-glucanase activity assays. Our results showed that the total β-1,3-glucanase activities were variable and genotype dependent. No significant correlation between β-1,3-glucanase activities and ploidy level was observed. The gel activity assays revealed a single fraction of ~52 kDa Glu1 that was found in all genotypes. The Glu1 fraction corresponds to a single or two acidic Glu isoforms in dependence on genotype. However, none of the acidic Glu fractions can be assigned as a specific for di-, tetra- or hexaploid genotypes. A single basic GluF isoform was detected and found as present in all genotypes.

Open access

Aneta Słomka, Elżbieta Kuta, Agnieszka Płażek, Franciszek Dubert, Iwona Żur, Ewa Dubas, Przemysław Kopeć and Grzegorz Żurek

Miscanthus ×giganteus Greef et Deu. (Poaceae), a hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis and M. sacchariflorus native to Japan, is an ornamental and a highly lignocellulosic bioenergy crop, cultivated in the European Union as an alternative source of energy. This grass reproduces exclusively vegetatively, by rhizomes or via expensive in vitro micropropagation. The present study was aimed at finding the barriers that prevent sexual seed production, based on detailed embryological analyses of the whole generative cycle, including microsporogenesis, pollen viability, megasporogenesis, female gametophyte development, and embryo and endosperm formation. Sterility of M. ×giganteus results from abnormal development of both male and female gametophytes. Disturbed microsporogenesis (laggard chromosomes, univalents, micronuclei) was further highlighted by low pollen staining. The frequency of stainable pollen ranged from 13.9% to 55.3% depending on the pollen staining test, and no pollen germination was observed either in vitro or in planta. The wide range of pollen sizes (25.5-47.6 μm) clearly indicated unbalanced pollen grain cytology, which evidently affected pollen germination. Only 9.7% of the ovules developed normally. No zygotes nor embryos were found in any analyzed ovules. Sexual reproduction of M. ×giganteus is severely hampered by its allotriploid (2n=3x=57) nature. Hybrid sterility, a strong postzygotic barrier, prevents sexual reproduction and, therefore, seed formation in this taxon.

Open access

Jana Sojková, Iwona Žur, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Ildikó Matušíková, Daniel Mihálik, Ján Kraic and Jana Moravčíková

Abstract

This work is aimed to evaluate in vitro regeneration potential of seven commercial soybean varieties Bohemians, Cardiff, Gallec, Merlin, Moravians, Naya and Silensia (Glycine max L.) cultivated in Central Europe. Our results showed the half-seeds could be effectively used as an explant source for all tested cultivars. The regeneration was initiated on the media containing growth regulators 1.67 mg.l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg.l-1 GA3. Within the first five days culture, green chlorophyll-containing explants were observed with frequency from 18.3% to 55.9%. Two weeks later, the explants responded by production of calli with the efficiency up to 83.0%. First shoots appeared after 2–3 weeks of subculture on the media. The soybean regeneration showed to be genotype-dependent with variable efficiencies from 5.7% (cv. Naya) to 37.7% (cv. Gallec). The cultivars Cardiff, Merlin and Gallec appear to be the most promising candidates for further biotechnological use. Application of antioxidants such as L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate does not have effect on the explant regeneration for the first five days.

Open access

Jana Moravčíková, Nikoleta Ujvariová, Iwona Žur, Zdenka Gálová, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Eva Boszorádová and Ildikó Matušíková

Abstract

Defense components such as chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) are crucial for plants to cope diseases. Despite of that the pattern and activities of these enzymes in agronomically important Triticale is unexplored. This work is aimed to study chitinase activities in the leaves of plants of early developmental stages in two diploids (Aegilops tauschii Coss., Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrical Host, Ae. triuncialis L., T. araraticum Jakubyz, T. dicoccum Schrank) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L., T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to quantitative and qualitative activity assays using synthetic 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N´,N´´-triacetylchitotrioside and glycolchitin as substrates, respectively. Our results showed that the activities of chitinases with specificity towards short oligomers were variable and genotype dependent. The enzyme activities in the tetra- and hexaploid genotypes were significantly higher than in diplod counterparts. In the gel detection assays were revealed up to four fractions (~20, 30, 42 and 95 kDa) of proteins with the chitinase activity towards long chain polymers. The isoform of ~30 kDa was identified in all analyzed genotypes. Among the seven acidic and three basic chitinase fractions identified, three acidic (ChiA, ChiB, ChiC) and two (ChiH, ChiI) fractions were present in all genotypes. None of the isoforms can be assigned as specific with respect to ploidy.