Small Scale Solar Cooling Unit in Climate Conditions of Latvia: Environmental and Economical Aspects
The paper contributes to the analyses from the environmental and economical point of view of small scale solar cooling system in climate conditions of Latvia. Cost analyses show that buildings with a higher cooling load and full load hours have lower costs. For high internal gains, cooling costs are around 1,7 €/kWh and 2,5 €/kWh for buildings with lower internal gains. Despite the fact that solar cooling systems have significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions due to a reduction of electricity consumption, the economic feasibility and attractiveness of solar cooling system is still low.
Edgars Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga and Ivars Veidenbergs
Climate Technology in a Wood Chips Boiler House
One of the innovative solutions of climate technologies is a pilot project relating to the condenser of fuel combustion products which is installed at a chips-fuelled boiler house in the Ludza city. A commercial experiment with the use of a gas condenser has been run at a boiler-house. An empirical model has been obtained, that describes the relation between the specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and the temperature difference of irrigation liquid & condensate mixture.
Haralds Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga and Ivars Veidenbergs
This paper demonstrates a demand side management case study: how to save energy and how research and data analysis help to create an energy management system in a pellet production facility; and shows ways to implement the EU energy efficiency directive in production facilities. The study carried out in this research serves as a far-reaching step that can be taken to improve energy efficiency during the operation mode of technological equipment. The benchmarking methodology is used for analysis of results.
Internal and external factors and indicators, which affect energy management potential in pellet production are analysed. Analysis of external factors is based on the state legal framework regulating the development of the energy sector. Methodology on the analysis of energy demand includes the internal energy management of an enterprise. The experimental results discussed in this paper show that particular steps, which are oriented to specific use of technological equipment, could play significant role in energy efficiency improvement in industry which is illustrated by the pre-milling process in the pellet production system using power.
Methods of Nitrogen Oxide Reduction in Pellet Boilers
The main goal of this research was to create and test technical solutions that reduce nitrogen oxide emissions in low-capacity pellet boiler. During the research, wood pellets were incinerated in a pellet boiler produced in Latvia with a rated capacity of 15 kW. During the research two NOx emission reduction methods were tested: secondary air supply in the chamber and recirculation of flue gases. Results indicated a drop of NOx concentration only for flue gas recirculation methods. Maximum reduction of 21% was achieved.
Ivars Veidenbergs, Dagnija Blumberga, Edgars Vigants and Grigorijs Kozuhars
Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Scrubber of Flue Gas Heat Recovery Device
The paper deals with the heat and mass transfer process research in a flue gas heat recovery device, where complicated cooling, evaporation and condensation processes are taking place simultaneously. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is used during the process of analysis. In order to prepare a detailed process analysis based on heat and mass process descriptive equations, as well as the correlation for wet gas parameter calculation, software in the Microsoft Office Excel environment is being developed.
Edvins Terehovics, Ivars Veidenbergs and Dagnija Blumberga
Unlike energy efficiency, in terms of exergy efficiency it is possible to compare the existing operation of an energy conversion system with the ideal operation. Exergy loses and exergy destruction make it possible to identify the shortcomings of an existing system, which should be improved immediately. With exergy analysis, it is possible to identify the priority actions that need to be taken in order to improve the functioning of the system: greater exergy loss prevention is the highest priority. Energy efficiency refers to the useful work and investments needed to obtain useful work and investments needed to obtain energy efficiency; this is important to some extent, but the effectiveness of exergy makes it possible to compare system performance with the ideal. Results shows that the highest exergy destruction of a single-stage compressor refrigeration system from all working condition is found when ambient temperature and freezer temperature difference is 10 ºC, pressure in compressor is 0.62 MPa, ammonia temperature after compressor is 90 ºC, total exergy destruction of single-stage compressor refrigeration system 97.84 kW. The highest exergy efficiency of a single-stage compressor refrigeration system from all the working conditions is found when ambient temperature and freezer temperature difference is 39 ºC, pressure in compressor is 0.45 MPa, ammonia temperature after compressor is 128 ºC, exergy efficiency of a single-stage compressor refrigeration system is 59.76 %. The highest total exergy destruction of a two-stage compressor refrigeration system from among all the working conditions is found to be when the ambient temperature and freezer temperature difference is at 13 ºC, pressure in compressor 0.44 MPa, ammonia temperature after compressor 76 ºC, total exergy destruction 83.86 kW. The highest exergy efficiency of a two-stage compressor refrigeration system from among all the working conditions is found to be at an ambient temperature and freezer temperature difference of 39 ºC, pressure in compressor 0.56 MPa, ammonia temperature after compressor 92 ºC, exergy efficiency 53.55 %.
Ginta Cimdina, Lelde Timma, Ivars Veidenbergs and Dagnija Blumberga
In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.
Janis Ikaunieks, Liga Mezmale, Aivars Zandeckis, Jelena Pubule, Andra Blumberga and Ivars Veidenbergs
Non-thermal Plasma for VOC Treatment in Flue Gases
The paper discusses non-thermal plasmas, their generation and characteristics, formation mechanisms of ozone and the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the experimental part, undecane (C11H24 as model VOCs) was treated with assistance of low temperature plasma at an atmospheric pressure which was generated in the so-called stack reactor. The gas composition was 13% of oxygen in nitrogen with impurities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and undecane. The formation of by-products, as well as the removal efficiency, were investigated.
Vivita Priedniece, Elvis Kalnins, Vladimirs Kirsanovs, Nerijus Pedisius, Ivars Veidenbergs and Dagnija Blumberga
Particulate matter (PM) is a significant pollution problem on the global scale. There are different ways to measure PM from stationary sources. The most used types of PM collection methods include different filters. These include cellulose, glass, mixed and membrane filters. In this study PM samples were measured in the flue gas condenser – fog unit system before and after the unit according to ISO 9096 standard using isokinetic and gravimetric method. PM concentrations after fog unit were measured at different water flows and nozzle types. Impact factors, that effect PM concentrations before and after the fog unit are listed and studied in detail. Achieved results show that the fog unit can be one potential technology for particle matter emission decrease from the household sector.
Flue gas evaporation and condensing processes are investigated in a direct contact heat exchanger - condensing unit, which is installed after a furnace. By using equations describing processes of heat and mass transfer, as well as correlation coherences for determining wet gas parameters, a model is formed to create a no-filling, direct contact heat exchanger. Results of heating equipment modelling and experimental research on the gas condensing unit show, that the capacity of the heat exchanger increases, when return temperature of the district heating network decreases. In order to explain these alterations in capacity, the character of the changes in water vapour partial pressure, in the propelling force of mass transfer, in gas and water temperatures and in the determining parameters of heat transfer are used in this article. The positive impact on the direct contact heat exchanger by the decreased district heating (DH) network return temperature shows that introduction of the 4th generation DH system increases the energy efficiency of the heat exchanger. In order to make an assessment, the methodology suggested in the paper can be used in each particular situation.