Nanomedicine is a booming medical field that utilises nanoparticles (NPs) for the development of medicines, medical devices, and diagnostic tools. The behaviour of NPs in vivo may be quite complex due to their interactions with biological molecules. These interactions in biological fluids result in NPs being enveloped by dynamic protein coronas, which serve as an interface between NPs and their environment (blood, cell, tissue). How will the corona interact with this environment will depend on the biological, chemical, and physical properties of NPs, the properties of the proteins that make the corona, as well as the biological environment. This review summarises the main characteristics of protein corona and describes its dynamic nature. It also presents the most common analytical methods to study the corona, including examples of protein corona composition for the most common NPs used in biomedicine. This knowledge is necessary to design NPs that will create a corona with a desired efficiency and safety in clinical use.
Garlic is a valuable source material for medicines due to its known antitumor, hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. This study compares the protective effects of conventionally grown (CG) and in vitro propagated garlic (PG) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and their antioxidant activity. Garlic used in this study was obtained by planting garlic cloves or by planting the transplants of PG directly in the field. At the end of the vegetation period, CG and PG were sampled and extracts prepared for the experiment. Compared to conventionally grown garlic bulbs, PG leafy part yielded significantly higher content of polyphenols, flavonoids and alliin, and also showed equal or higher antioxidant activity, measured by the cell viability test, GSH and ROS level. Moreover, PG can be produced in less time (shorter vegetation period) and with significantly less material (cloves). Significantly higher content of alliin, polyphenols, and flavonoids and significantly higher yield of plant biomass in PG has a great potential to become a new production model with improved garlic properties as a medicine material.
Many personal care products on the market contain endocrine disrupting chemicals, including parabens. Parabens are well known chemical additives used as preservatives. They have been found in mammary glands and breast cancer tissues. At the same time, the general public is increasingly exposed to plastic micro- and nanoparticles generated during plastic production and waste disposal. Exposure to chemical cocktails is a realistic scenario of high public health interest, in which many types of compounds such as these two may exhibit synergistic or additive adverse effects. This study evaluated the effects of plastic nanoparticles, parabens, and their mixture on the viability and proliferation of two human breast cancer cell lines: MDA-MB 231, which lacks oestrogen receptors, and MCF-7, which expresses these receptors. Parabens increased proliferation of oestrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells, and this effect became synergistic in the presence of plastic nanoparticles. The mechanism behind synergy may be related to the translocation and adsorption properties of nanoplastics, which served as a Trojan horse to expose cells to parabens more efficiently. These preliminary findings support growing evidence warning about the urgent problem of human exposure to combinations of plastic waste and contingent chemicals.