Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children due to the occurrence of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock and its consequences, anemia and hypovolemia, decrease oxygen delivery, due to which appropriate transfusion and volume resuscitation are critical. Guidelines for massive transfusion, in the pediatric trauma, have not been defined yet. Current data indicate that early identification of coagulopathy and its treatment with RBSs, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 unit ratio, and limited use of crystalloids may improve survival in pediatric trauma patients.
Biljana Stošić, Ivana Budić, Danijela Stanković, Marija Jović, Velimir Perić, Marija Stošić and Milica Radić
Medical simulation is an artificial and a faithful representation of real clinical situations with the help of static and interactive doll simulators, standardized patients/actors, models for the exercise, simulation on a computer screen and a “serious” performance of a real clinical situation. That is a modern way of learning that helps students and health workers to achieve a higher level of expertise and provide a safer health care. Medical simulation is one of the greatest and most important innovations in medical education for the past 20 years. The goal of the simulation is to provide an optimal relationship between education and patient’s safety. It is used both in undergraduate and postgraduate studies, as well as in continuing medical education. Simulators used in medical education can be divided into six groups, ranging from the use of paper and pencils to the most modern computerized interactive simulator. Depending on the economic development level and the organization of health care, rigorous high medical simulation can be performed in three ways: in the center for medical simulation, in the form of “in situ” simulation, and as remote simulations.