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Ivančica Trošić, Ivan Pavičić, Ana Marjanović and Ivana Bušljeta

Non-Thermal Biomarkers of Exposure to Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation

This article gives a review or several hypotheses on the biological effects of non-thermal radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) radiation and discusses our own findings from animal and in vitro studies performed over the last decade. We have found that RF/MW radiation disturbs cell proliferation and leads to cell differentiation in the bone marrow, which is reflected in the peripheral blood of rats. Repeated RF/MW radiation can also temporarily disrupt melatonin turnover. The observed changes seem to be a sign of adaptation to stress caused by irradiation rather than of malfunction. The article looks further into the basic mechanisms of RF/MW biological action, including cell growth parameters, colony-forming ability, viability, and the polar and apolar protein cytoskeleton structures. The observed reversible cell changes significantly obstructed cell growth. In contrast to the apolar intermediate proteins, the intracellular polar microtubule and actin fibres were damaged by radiation in a time-dependent manner. These significantly altered parameters can be considered as the biomarkers of exposure. Future research should combine dosimetry, experimental studies, and epidemiological data.