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  • Author: Ivan Verdenik x
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Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women – from the point of view of primary care gynecologist

Abstract

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent public health problem with osteoporosis-related fractures that account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention strategies and early detection of osteoporosis should be carried out in primary gynaecological care units, so as to substantially reduce the risk of fractures and allow the best treatment option for a particular woman.

Methods

From 2002 to 2011, we recruited 2956 women. Of the total number of women, we additionally extrapolated 1274 women aged 60-75 years, assumingly, the group of women at higher risk of osteoporosis. Demographic and anthropometrical data as well as the information regarding risk factors for osteoporosis were collected using a questionnaire.

Results

The odds ratio for osteoporosis increased by 8% (p=0.001) with each additional year of life. The OP prevalence increased with age from 24.9% in 60-64 years to 37.4% in 70-75 years. In non-smokers the odds ratio for osteoporosis was 0.424, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). BMI <18.5 increased the odds ratio for osteoporosis by 2 times, which was not statistically significant. In women 60-75 years old (N=1274), the risk of fractures increased with increasing age, considering previous fractures in the last 5 years (p<0.001), hip fracture (p=0.001), wrist fracture (p=0.002) and observed height loss (p<0.001). Hormone therapy (HT) use decreased the prevalence of OP by 25% in comparison with non-users.

Conclusion

Primary care gynaecologist with a DXA centre has every opportunity for a holistic approach to the management of postmenopausal women, including the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Open access
The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through In Vitro Fertilization

Abstract

Objective

The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life.

Methods

In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn’s data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group.

Results

The mean women’s age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in “friend/acquaintances” (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05).

Conclusions

IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed.

Open access
Effects of perinatal factors on body mass index and physical fitness of school-age children

Abstract

Objective

To examine the effects of various maternal and neonatal perinatal factors on the child’s body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness at school-age.

Methods

Data from two registries, the SLOfit database (a national surveillance system of children’s motor and physical development) and Slovenian National Perinatal Information System (NPIS) were analysed. Perinatal data for 2,929 children born in 2008 were linked to results of SLOfit testing of these children in 2016. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the potential relationship between several perinatal factors (very preterm birth, birth mass, maternal age, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, parity, plurality, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, mode of delivery, presentation, Apgar score at 5 minutes, and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)) and child’s BMI or child’s physical fitness index (PFI) at the age of eight years. We also included child’s school grade and maternal educational level in the analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Children born to mothers with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and higher education had lower BMI and higher PFI (p<0.001) at school-age. Physical fitness was also inversely associated with nulliparity (p<0.001) and NICU admission (p=0.020).

Conclusions

Among all perinatal factors studied, higher maternal education and lower pre-pregnancy BMI seem to be the most significant determinants of child’s BMI and physical fitness at school-age.

Open access
Circulating serum sVCAM-1 concentration in advanced ovarian cancer patients: correlation with concentration in ascites

Abstract

Background. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is associated with ovarian cancer progression but the origin of its soluble form (sVCAM-1) in serum is not well investigated. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the concentration of sVCAM-1 in serum correlates with the concentration in ascites, that represents local tumour environment, and with systemic inflammation, various clinicopathological characteristics, and patient outcome.

Patients and methods. Thirty-six patients with advanced ovarian cancer were included in the study. Serum for sVCAM-1 analysis was obtained prior to surgery. Ascites samples were collected at the beginning of the operation. Clinical data were collected from patients’ medical records. sVCAM-1 in samples was analysed by flow cytometric bead-based assay. The mean follow-up period was 11 months (range 0-23) from the time of surgery.

Results. Serum sVCAM-1 concentrations are positively correlated to ascites sVCAM-1 concentrations. There was a weakly positive correlation of serum sVCAM-1 with tumour size and no correlation with inflammatory tumour markers, FIGO stage or grade. Higher concentrations of sVCAM-1 were associated with poor disease outcome (death from ovarian cancer) in almost all cases before chemotherapy was started.

Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that serum concentrations of sVCAM-1 in advanced ovarian cancer patients correlate with sVCAM-1 concentrations in ascites, thus expressing the biologic potential of malignant disease to metastasis, rather than systemic inflammation. Higher serum and ascites sVCAM-1 concentrations might have predictive potential for different biologic behaviour.

Open access
Potential of osteopontin in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer

Abstract

Background

Osteopontin (sOPN) is a promising blood tumour marker for detecting epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, other clinical uses of sOPN as a tumour marker in EOC are still lacking. Since sOPN concentrations in serum are not associated with those in ascites, we compared clinical value of sOPN concentrations in the two body fluids.

Patients and methods

The study included 31 women with advanced EOC and 34 women with benign gynaecological pathology. In the EOC group, serum for sOPN analysis was obtained preoperatively, after primary debulking surgery and after chemotherapy. In the control group, serum was obtained before and after surgery. Ascites and peritoneal fluid were obtained during surgery. sOPN concentrations were determined by flow cytometry bead-based assay.

Results

The sensitivity and specificity of sOPN in detecting EOC was 91.2% and 90.3% (cut-off = 47.4 ng/ml) in serum, and 96.8% and 100% (cut-off = 529.5 ng/ml) in ascites. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association between higher serum sOPN concentration and overall survival (p = 0.018) or progression free survival (p = 0.008). Higher ascites sOPN concentrations were associated with suboptimally debulked tumour and unresectable disease. Higher serum sOPN concentrations were associated with refractory disease or incomplete response to platinum-based chemotherapy.

Conclusions

The study showed that ascites sOPN level mirrors present disease and is superior to serum level for diagnostic purposes and surgical planning, although the end result of treatment is the response of the whole body in fighting the disease. The preoperative sOPN concentration in serum thus better reflects disease outcome.

Open access
The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescents in Slovenia

Abstract

Introduction

The objective of the study was to determine the course and outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescents compared to women aged 20–24 years in Slovenia.

Methods

In the retrospective study, the course of pregnancy and labour and the perinatal outcome of newborns in primiparous adolescents aged ≤19 years (study group) have been compared to the control group of primiparous women aged 20–24 years. The study group was further divided into a study subgroup of adolescents aged ≤17 years. Data were retrieved from the National Perinatal Information System in Slovenia for the period 2008–2012. Altogether, 13,663 women and their newborns were included.

Results

Adolescent pregnancy was associated with increased rates of unknown estimated date of delivery, preterm labour, low birth weight newborns, small for gestational age newborns and low gestational weight gain. Spontaneous labour was more common in adolescents, while emergency and elective Caesarean sections were less common than in women aged 20–24 years. In addition, pregnancy in adolescents aged ≤17 years was associated with increased rate of maternal anaemia and labour without complications. Higher rates of smoking, lower rates of parenting school attendance, lower rates of pregnancy check-ups and screening tests in pregnancy such as nuchal translucency in adolescents were found.

Conclusions

The results of the study show that adolescent pregnancy is related to higher health risks for pregnant adolescents and their newborns. In addition, adolescents are subject to poorer prenatal care comparing to older women.

Open access
Classification of primary caesarean sections in labor and its usefulness for analysis of Slovenian perinatal data

Abstract

Objective

To determine the usefulness of a novel classification of indications for caesarean section (CS) in labour in recognizing differences in clinical practice in different maternity units.

Methods

Data from the National Perinatal Information System (NPIS) for 2013 and 2014 were used to classify indications for CS in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labour at ≥37 weeks with single cephalic foetuses within 14 Slovenian maternity units into foetal distress and different sub-groups of dystocia according to use and dosage of oxytocin. Chi-square test was used for statistical comparison between units (P≤0.05 significant).

Results

There were 13,572 deliveries and 1,567 (12.0%) CS in nulliparous patients with spontaneous onset of labour at ≥37 weeks with single cephalic foetuses in Slovenia during the study period. Rates of CS in this group of women differed significantly among different maternity units (from 4.1% to 20.9%; P<0.001) suggesting significant differences in clinical practice. The most common indication for CS was cephalopelvic disproportion, which was diagnosed with different frequency in different units (from 11.2% to 45.9%; odds ratio 6.72; 95% confidence interval 3.10– 14.71; P<0.001).

Conclusions

It is possible to use NPIS data to retrospectively classify indications for CS. Such classification reveals significant differences among maternity units and could allow for a meaningful analysis of CS rates in different hospitals leading to evidence-based initiatives to decrease the incidence of primary CS.

Open access
The role of health services in encouraging disclosure of violence against women

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of the survey was to assess the differences in disclosure by the type of violence to better plan the role of health services in identifying and disclosing violence.

Methods

A validated, anonymous screening questionnaire (NorAQ) for the identification of female victims of violence was offered to all postpartum women at a single maternity unit over a three-month period in 2014. Response rate was 80% (1018 respondents). Chi square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 significant).

Results

There are differences in disclosure by type of violence. Nearly half (41.5%) of violence by health care services was not reported, compared to 33.7% physical, 23.4% psychological, and 32.5% sexual that was reported. The percentage of violence in intimate partnership reported to health care staff is low (9.3% to 20.8%), but almost half of the violence experienced by heath care services (44%) is reported. Intimate partnership violence is more often reported to the physician than to the psychologist or social worker. Violence in health care service is reported also to nurses.

Conclusions

Disclosure enables various institutions to start with the procedures aimed at protecting victims against violence. Health workers should continuously encourage women to speak about violence rather than asking about it only once. It is also important that such inquiries are made on different levels of health care system and by different health care professions, since there are differences to whom women are willing to disclose violence.

Open access
Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of tongue posture and its impact on articulation disorders in preschool children with anterior open bite

Abstract

Background

Tongue posture plays an important role in the etiology of anterior open bite (AOB) and articulation disorders, and is crucial for AOB treatment planning and posttreatment stability. Clinical assessment of tongue posture in children is unreliable due to anatomical limitations. The aim of the study was to present functional diagnostics using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) assessment of resting tongue posture in comparison to clinical assessment, and the associations between the improper tongue posture, otorhinolaryngological characteristics, and articulation disorders in preschool children with AOB.

Patients and methods

A cross-sectional study included 446 children, aged 3–7 years, 236 boys and 210 girls, examined by an orthodontist to detect the prevalence of AOB. The AOB was present in 32 children. The control group consisted of 43 children randomly selected from the participants with normocclusion. An orthodontist, an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist and a speech therapist assessed orofacial and ENT conditions, oral habits, and articulation disorders in the AOB group and control group. Tongue posture was also assessed by an experienced radiologist, using 3DUS. The 3DUS assessment of tongue posture was compared to the clinical assessment of orthodontist and ENT specialist.

Results

The prevalence of AOB was 7.2%. The AOB group and the control group significantly differed regarding improper tongue posture (p < 0.001), and articulation disorders (p < 0.001). In children without articulation disorders from both groups, the improper tongue posture occured less frequently than in children with articulation disorders (p < 0.001). After age adjustment, a statistical regression model showed that the children with the improper tongue posture had higher odds ratios for the presence of AOB (OR 14.63; p < 0.001) than the others. When articulation disorders were included in the model, these odds ratios for the AOB became insignificant (p = 0.177). There was a strong association between the improper tongue posture and articulation disorders (p = 0.002). The 3DUS detected the highest number of children with improper resting tongue posture, though there was no significant difference between the 3DUS and clinical assessments done by orthodontist and ENT specialist.

Conclusions

The 3DUS has proved to be an objective, non-invasive, radiation free method for the assessment of tongue posture and could become an important tool in functional diagnostics and early rehabilitation in preschool children with speech irregularities and irregular tongue posture and malocclusion in order to enable optimal conditions for articulation development.

Open access