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Open access

Ivan Todorović, Stefan Komazec and Mladen Čudanov

Abstract

Background: Transitions in the modern business environment cause significant organizational changes not only in private companies, but also in the public sector. Introduction of an adequate organizational model for the public sector could improve the quality level of public services. Objectives: This article aims to present general benefits of the application of the holding organizational paradigm in the public sector through a parallel analysis of several cases that were observed individually in our previous research. The goal is to suggest possible restructuring directions to policy makers in cities where the public sector has not been adjusted to the changes in the modern business environment. Methods: The case study research based on the documentation analysis, interviews and direct observation using the standard management consulting practice provided an additional and deeper insight into the functioning of public enterprises in one European capital and one small municipality. Results: The examples presented in this paper showed that the application of the holding institutional solution in the public sector leads to an improved command, an increased level of control, reduced management costs, better allocation of city resources and decreased overheads in the public sector. Conclusions: Switching from a functional towards a network model of the organizational structure improved the performance of public enterprises and increased the quality of public services

Open access

Miodrag Todorović, Ivan Stanković and Samir Ljajić

Abstract

The fact that an enormous portion of the public revenue is lost through tax evasion indicates the inevitability of taking various measures to suppress it. According to the latest statistics, the outflow from the gross domestic product through tax evasion is 30%. The aim of this paper is to point to the systematisation of the matter relating to an assessment of the efficiency of tax audit as a pillar of the reduction of tax evasion and informal economy in our country. Methodology implies a descriptive research. Collected data were meticulously analysed by means of basic arithmetic operations. Due to serious consequences of tax evasion, it is necessary to upgrade the tax system modelled on developed market economies. It is necessary to modernise a Tax Administration, as well as to improve the co-operation between its segments. A synthetic income tax should be introduced. It would encompass all revenues that a taxpayer generates per year. If all taxpayers settled their tax liabilities, it would create space for tax burden reduction. In legal states only “the bravest” resort to tax evasion. Most countries have undertaken a series of measures in order to suppress tax evasion and informal economy. However, the effectiveness of the struggle varies.

Open access

Ivica Pejčić, Svetislav Vrbić, Mirjana Todorović, Ivan Petković, Mirjana Balić and Ana Stanković

Summary

Metastatic carcinomas of unknown primary origin (cancer of unknown primary-CUP) represent 3-5% of all cancers. This term includes all patients presented with metastatic disease in whom the primary site could not have been identified. Despite the use of modern and comprehensive diagnostic techniques and procedures, there is no improvement in efficacy (efficiency) of indentifying the primary site of disseminated disease. That is why a diagnostic procedure should be rational and should include the basic diagnostic examination (analyses) with the aim to define biological and clinical characteristics of diagnosed disease, as well as an optimal therapeutic approach. Although the overall prognosis of the majority of these patients is poor, it is possible, nowadays, to distinguish the subgroups of patients with favorable prognosis. Results of new basic research, better understanding of pathogenesis at the molecular level and introduction of new drugs through clinical trials suggest an advance in this disease treatment and outcome.

Open access

Ivan Todorović, Stefan Komazec, Miloš Jevtić, Vladimir Obradović and Miha Marič

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Volume and sophistication of scientific research related to different aspects of entrepreneurship have significantly increased in recent years. Many authors point out the positive influence that development of micro, small and medium enterprises and entrepreneurship has on economic growth and job creation. According to various researchers, youth entrepreneurship and women entrepreneurship are two very important elements of this global phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to provide the analysis of strategic framework for the support to the development of youth and women entrepreneurship in Serbia.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Situational analysis of youth and women employment and examination of official Government strategic documents related to strategic framework for the support to the development of youth and women entrepreneurship in Serbia will be conducted.

Results: Concrete activities have to be performed by different stakeholders, mostly non-government organizations. The activity stakeholders are on the bottom of the institutional framework, which provides the support to MSME (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) sector that will execute the operations in accordance with the defined strategic framework.

Conclusion: Youth-run enterprises provide numerous benefits for society; they reduce youth unemployment and help young people prepare for their future. Female entrepreneurs also have strong economic and social impact.

Open access

Gašper Jordan, Gozdana Miglič, Ivan Todorović and Miha Marič

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Organizations should implement new findings from the field of human resource management. If an organization wants to have successful and effective employees, they should be satisfied with all aspects of work and at the same time they should be feel commitment towards an organization. To have a full insight in employees, organizations have to take care of psychological side of employees, which manifests in psychological empowerment.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The survey was conducted among 409 university lecturers in Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Serbia, and Slovenia. The investigated constructs of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organisational commitment were compared. Spreitzer’s PEQ was used for the assessment of the psychological empowerment, Spector’s JSS for job satisfaction, and Allen’s and Meyer’s OCQ for the assessment of organisational commitment.

Results: The research showed that the highest level of psychological empowerment can be found among university lecturers from Serbia and the lowest from Germany. Job satisfaction level is the highest in Austria and the lowest in Slovenia. Affective organisational commitment is the highest in Slovenia and the lowest in Germany. Continuance organisational commitment scored the highest in Croatia and the lowest in Czech Republic. Additionally, the outcomes show the highest level of normative organisational commitment in Czech Republic and the lowest in Austria. Only affective organisational commitment was not found as statistically significant.

Conclusion: Knowledge of psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment can be helpful for leaders, because with this knowledge they can manage, develop and motivate employees properly.

Open access

Ivan Todorović, Stefan Komazec, Miha Marič and Jovan Krivokapić

Different authors agree that designing the organizational structure in accordance with the business processes can bring numerous advantages, which improve business performance of the organizational system. This article aims to show how cost-effective restructuring, through modification of organizational structure according to business processes that exist in the organization, can bring numerous benefits. Successful implementation of process organizational model does not necessarily demand large investments, but only adequate structural changes and internal reorganization. The data used in this paper were gathered during the project of restructuring one transportation company from Belgrade, which consulting team from Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, performed in year 2012.

Open access

Nataša Popović, B. Snežana Pajović, Vesna Stojiljković, Ana Todorović, Snežana Pejić, Ivan Pavlović and Ljubica Gavrilović

Abstract

This study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS: 2 hours × 14 days) on gene expression of three antioxidant enzymes, copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD 1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD 2) and catalase (CAT) in the rat hippocampus. Also, we examined changes in the activities of SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats. Investigated parameters were quantifi ed by using real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and assay of enzymatic activity. We found that CRS did not change mRNA and protein levels of SOD 1 and CAT, but increased mRNA and protein levels of SOD 2. However, CRS treatment increased the enzyme activities of SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT. Our fi ndings indicate that the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD 1, SOD 2 and CAT) in the hippocampus may be an important adaptive phenomenon of the antioxidant defense system in chronically stressed rats.

Open access

Marko Jović, Ivan Nikolić, Vera Todorović, Aleksandar Petrović, Vladimir Petrović and Tijana Denčić

Summary

In the reference literature, there are a few studies on the development of the lymphatic system in the liver, especially human. This study aims to establish the presence, time of appearance, distribution and representation of expression D2-40 molecule – a marker of lymph vessels endothelial cells during the fetal period of the human liver development.

The livers obtained from 20 human fetuses (10 male and 12 female), aged 12-37 gestational weeks, constituted our study material. Paraffin sections, 4 µm thick, were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis, and with LSAB2/HRP method for immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 monoclonal antibody to mark lymphatic endothelial cells. The presence of lymphatic vessels was determined by morphometry, calculating their numerical and volume density.

The study showed that expression of D2-40 molecule was absent in the liver lymphatic vessels in the first trimester of development, while in the second trimester intensive D2-40 immunoreactivity was observed in the lymph vessels of the liver capsule, and low D2-40 immunopositivity of the lymph vessels in large portal spaces. In the third trimester, intensive D2-40 immunoreactivity was observed in the lymph vessels of the liver capsule and in the endothelium of numerous lymphatic vessels of various shape and size, located in the smaller and larger portal areas. Volume and numerical density of lymphatic vessels in the portal areas of the liver during fetal development increased from the second to the third trimester of pregnancy, which was proportional to the increase in volume density of the hepatic portal spaces. Based on the obtained results, a conclusion may be drawn that the lymph vessels in the liver can be identified in the first half of the second trimester, and their number was growing proportionally by the end of pregnancy.

Open access

Tijana1 Lužajić Božinovski, Danica Marković, Vera Todorović, Bogomir Prokić Bolka, Ivan Milošević, Neda Drndarević, Katarina Nešović, Rhee Kyong Yop and Vesna Mišković-Stanković

Abstract

In this paper, we have shown for the fi rst time the soft tissue response of novel silver/ poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene (Ag/PVA/Gr) and silver/poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/ graphene (Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr) nanocomposite hydrogels aimed for medical applications. These novel hydrogels were produced by in situ electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrices as described in our previously published works. Both Ag/PVA/Gr and Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr, as well as controls Ag/PVA, Ag/PVA/CHI and commercial Suprasorb©hydrogel discs, were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Implants with the surrounding tissue were dissected after post-implantation on days 7, 15, 30 and 60, and then processed for histological examination. The tissue irritation index (TIrI) score, according to ISO 10993-6, 2007, as well as the number of leukocytes in the peri-implant zone and connective tissue capsule thickness were examined. The results show that each TIrI score, the leukocyte number around the implanted materials and capsule thickness gradually decreased during the observation period. At the endpoint of follow-up, the Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr implant was surrounded with a thinner capsule, while both the TIrI score and the number of leukocytes of the peri-implant zone were greater compared to the Ag/PVA/Gr implant. Despite the observed differences, we can conclude that our in vivo experiment suggested that both novel hydrogels were biocompatible and suitable for medical use.