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  • Author: Ivan Novakov x
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Adult Bochdalek hernia simulating left pleural effusion: a review and a case report

The authors present a rare case of congenital diaphragmatic Bochdalek hernia in an adult stimulating left pleural effusion. The diagnosis of left pleural effusion was made on the basis of conventional chest X-ray and ultrasonography. The definitive diagnosis of Bochdalek hernia was made by left video-assisted thoracoscopy. The patient was successfully treated operatively by conventional surgery - a combination of left thoracotomy and median laparotomy.

The reported case supported the view that Bochdalek hernia in adults presents usually with atypical chronic abdominal and respiratory symptoms. Surgical treatment should best be performed, according to the authors, by competent surgeons with good command of both the thoracic and abdominal approaches to the diaphragm.

Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis of Odontogenic Origin - Personal Experience and Literature Review

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is the most severe form of mediastinal infection. The aim of the study was to present the optimal diagnostic and treatment approach to this severe, life-threatening condition.

Patients and methods: Three patients (men, aged 75, 73, and 63) with descending necrotizing mediastinitis hospitalised between April 2007 and February 2009 have been included in the study. The diagnosis of the condition was made based on cervico-thoracic computed tomography and surgical findings. The surgical treatment in each of the cases included bilateral longitudinal cervicotomy, transversal suprasternal cervicotomy and posterior-lateral thoracotomy.

Results: The period between the initiation of ambulatory treatment of the dental infection and diagnosing the mediastinitis was 9, 8 and 11 days, respectively. Engagement of all cervical spaces and mediastinal sections with polybacterial (three or more agents) dental infection, originating from third and fourth lower molars was present in each of the patients. Chronic alcoholism and diabetes are factors influencing the course of mediastinitis. The outcome in all the three patients was lethal (within 72 hours).

Conclusion: Success in the treatment of descending necrotic mediastinitis of odontogenic origin may be expected only in case of early diagnose and aggressive cervical and mediastinal drainage, performed by bilateral longitudinal cervicotomy and posterior-lateral thoracotomy.

Resolution of Experimental Pneumothorax by Room Air

Observation alone is advised only for primary spontaneous pneumothoraces with less than 20 percent of the lungs collapsed. In such cases, it is the resorption capabilities of the visceral pleura that are solely relied upon.

The aim of the present experimental study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the pleura for pneumothorax resolution by room air.

Material and methods: The study was conducted with six laboratory animals (New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg), in which right total pneumothorax was induced. Conventional chest X-rays at intervals of 2 days were used to monitor the changes in the size of the pneumothorax until its final resolution. The size of the pneumothorax was estimated by the Light index.

Results: Total resolution of the pneumothorax occurred within 12 days after it was induced. The average rate of pneumothorax resolution was 6.63% (SEM ± 0.20)/daily.

Conclusion: The study imitates initial clinical observation in pneumothorax. Despite the fact that the study demonstrates resolution of total pneumothorax (100%), observation only is inappropriate as a treatment modality in patients with more than 20% collapse of the lung.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to present our own experimental model of blunt chest trauma in small laboratory animals. Fifteen Wistar albino rats (body weight 290.0-320.0 g) were used in the experiment. An originally designed platform was used to inflict blunt thoracic trauma in the rats. Gross examination and histological evaluation of the heart and lung were performed. It was established that blunt chest trauma caused three thoracic injuries: bilateral lung contusion, myocardial contusion and hemopericardium. These thoracic injuries occurred as a result from direct compression of the chest wall towards the lung and the heart. The severity of lung parenchymal and myocardial pathological findings depended on the energy of blunt chest trauma. The study presents a reproducible small-animal experimental model of blunt chest trauma. The model gives opportunities for further studying different aspects of lung and myocardial contusion.

Abstract

Spinal neurofibroma is one of the rarest of the neoplasms involving the spinal cord or roots and occurs much less often than neurinoma, meningioma or glioma. The sixth pediatric case of solitary intramedullary tumor was described in 2013, according to B. Eljebbouri et al. We present a rare, difficult to diagnose and may-be the seventh pediatric case of solitary neurofibroma of the cauda equine in an 11-month-old infant. The patient underwent a laminectomy of T12, L1, L2 and L3, extirpation of intradural, intramedullary and extramedullary spinal cord tumor. The patient is fully recovered for 5 years of monitoring. Although rare, spinal neurofibromas in children should be diagnostically considered and radically treated for a favorable outcome.