Contaminants of Medicinal Herbs and Herbal Products
Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework.
Maja Klarić, Zdenka Cvetnić, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Ivan Kosalec
Co-occurrence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, Fumonisins, and Zearalenone in Cereals and Feed, Determined by Competitive Direct Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Thin-Layer Chromatography
Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species frequently contaminate crops. For this reason mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEA) are found in food and feed in a wide range of concentrations, depending on environmental and storage conditions. Consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed has been associated with acute and chronic poisoning and carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and co-occurrence of AFs (B1+B2+G1+G2), OTA, FBs (B1+B2+B3), and ZEA in 37 samples of cereals and feed randomly collected in 2007 from households of an endemic nephropathy (EN) area in Croatia. The mycotoxins were determined using the competitive direct ELISA test (CD-ELISA) in combination with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The most frequent mycotoxin was ZEA (92%, mean 318.3 μg kg-1), followed by FBs (27%, 3690 μg kg-1), AFs (24.3%, 4.6 μg kg-1), and OTA (16.2%, 9.8 μg kg-1). Levels of AFs, ZEA, and FBs detected by CD-ELISA significantly correlated with the TLC results. However, only one OTA-positive sample was confirmed by TLC due to its high limit of detection. The levels of these mycotoxins were below the permissible limit for animal feed. Twenty-nine percent of cereals were contaminated with FBs, OTA, or ZEA in mass fractions above the permissible limit for humans. Co-occurrence of two toxins varied between 4.2% and 54% and of three between 4.2% and 7.6%. Prolonged co-exposure to AFs, OTA, FBs, and ZEA might increase the risk of various chronic diseases.
Ivan Kosalec, Snježana Ramić, Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović, Stjepan Pepeljnjak and Nevenka Kopjar
Assessment of Tryptophol Genotoxicity in Four Cell Lines In Vitro: A Pilot Study with Alkaline Comet Assay
Tryptophol is an aromatic alcohol and secondary metabolite of the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans. Although its toxicity profile at cell level has been poorly investigated, recent data point to cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects in lymphocytes and the induction of apoptosis in leukaemic blood monocytes. In this pilot study we evaluated the genotoxicity of tryptophol in vitro on four permanent cell lines of animal and human origin: ovary cells, alveolar epithelium, liver cells, and blood monocytes using the alkaline comet assay. We selected cells that might be principal targets of tryptophol and other low-molecular geno(toxins) secreted by Candida albicans during host invasion. Our results suggest that tryptophol applied in vitro at 2 mmol L-1 for 24 h damages DNA in HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells, obviously due to bioactivation and/or decomposition of the parent compound, which results in the formation of more genotoxic compound(s) and production of reactive species that additionally damage DNA. On the other hand, notably lower levels of primary DNA damage were recorded in CHO cells, which lack metabolic activity. Future studies with tryptophol should look further into mechanisms involved in its toxic action and should focus on other cell types prone to infection with Candida spp. such as vaginal epithelial cells or keratinocytes of human origin.
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Klara Kraljić, Nada Oršolić, Siniša Tomić and Ivan Kosalec
Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.
Dario Kremer, Marko Randić, Ivan Kosalec, Ana Brkljačić, Gordan Lukač, Irena Krušić, Dalibor Ballian, Faruk Bogunić and Ksenija Karlović
New localities of the subendemic species Berberis croatica, Teucrium arduini and Micromeria croatica in the Dinaric Alps
New localities of three subendemic species (Berberis croatica, Teucrium arduini and Micromeria croatica) have been found in the Dinaric Alps. Berberis croatica was found at ten new locations, nine of them in Croatia and one in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Teucrium arduini was found on Mt Učka, Mt Velebit, Mt Biokovo and Mt Sniježnica, at nine new locations while Micromeria croatica was found at four new locations, only on Mt Velebit.
Saša Polović, Vanja Ljoljić Bilić, Ana Budimir, Darko Kontrec, Nives Galić and Ivan Kosalec
Aroylhydrazones 1–13 were screened for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities in vitro. N′-(2-hydroxy-phenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (2), N′-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl-methylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (10), N′-(3,5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (11), and N′-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (12) showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, with MIC values (in µmol mL−1) of 0.18–0.23, 0.11–0.20, 0.16–0.17 and 0.35–0.37, resp. Compounds 11 and 12, as well as N′-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (6) and N′-(2-hydroxy-5- methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (8) showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with the lowest MIC values of 0.005–0.2, 0.05–0.12, 0.06–0.48 and 0.17–0.99 µmol mL−1. N′-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenylmethylidene)-3-pyridinecarbohydrazide (7) showed antifungal activity against both fluconazole resistant and susceptible C. albicans strains with IC90 range of 0.18–0.1 µmol mL−1. Only compound 11 showed activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231 comparable to the activity of nystatin (the lowest MIC 4.0 ×10−2vs. 1.7 × 10−2 µmol mL−1). Good activity regarding multi-resistant clinical strains was observed for compound 12 against MRSA strain (MIC 0.02 µmol mL−1) and compounds 2, 6 and 12 against ESBL+ E. coli MFBF 12794, with the lowest MIC for compound 12 (IC50 0.16 µmol mL−1). Anti-biofilm activity was found for compounds 2 (MBFIC 0.015–0.02 µmol mL−1 against MRSA) and 12 (MBFIC 0.013 µmol mL−1 against EBSL+ E. coli). In the case of compound 2 against MRSA biofilm formation, MBFIC values were comparable to those of gentamicin sulphate, whereas in the case of compound 12 and EBSL+ E. coli even more favourable activity compared to gentamicin was observed.
Dario Kremer, Renata Jurišić Grubešić, Dalibor Ballian, Danijela Stešević, Ivan Kosalec, Jadranka Vuković Rodríguez, Marija Vukobratović and Siniša Srečec
The Illyric–Balkan endemic species Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. is very interesting as a potential horticultural and medicinal plant. The aim of this study was to investigate soil conditions of M. petraea habitats, the phenolic content in plant parts, and the influence of soil properties on the phenolic contents. The results were evaluated using Spearman rank order correlations. Analyzed soil samples contained very low to intermediate levels of physiologically active phosphorus, but were very rich in potash. Organic matter content of soil was high. Phenolic compound content was higher in leaves than in flowers or stems. The analyses showed that M. petraea possesses considerable quantities of phenolic compounds and has no specific demands for particular soil conditions. A negative correlation was found between soil phosphorus content and total phenols content in leaves and stems, and with the total phenolic acids content in flowers. Organic matter in soil also found to have a negative influence on total tannins content in stems. Among the tested geographical locations, the Mljet population showed a higher degree of separation from the remaining locations.
Lóránt Hatvani, Petra Sabolić, Sándor Kocsubé, László Kredics, Dorina Czifra, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Joško Kaliterna, Dario Ivić, Edyta Đermić and Ivan Kosalec
Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia