Migration poses a high risk to birds. Crossing of large bodies of water is especially demanding for land birds. One of the dangers faced by migrants are opportunistic predators like gulls. Most gulls Laridae are generalist predators with omnivorous diets. Attacking on migrating birds was investigated during ground observations of bird migration at Ada Island (S Montenegro) between 17 Mar and 10 Apr 2015. We recorded 20 attacks on 22 individuals of six species and on one unidentified passerine. In four instances gulls attacked birds of prey, in two Hoopoe Upupa epops and in 16 passerines. Except for two cases when small flocks of two birds were attacked, gulls attacked individuals migrating singly. Considering our data around one percent of passerines migrating during the day across the southern Adriatic Sea can expect to be attacked by gulls. This percentage can be as high as 9.5% for passerines migrating singly.
Between 29 Mar and 10 Apr, 2015, a Little Owl Athene noctua survey was carried out using the playback method in the southern part of Montenegro. The study area was situated between the town of Ulcinj and the Bojana River delta. A total of 55 calling males were registered at 26 survey points with a maximum of 4 calling males per survey point. Considering the low response rate of the Little Owl, its local population was estimated at be 55–110 calling males. This study presents the first systematic survey of the Little Owl in Montenegro.