The problem of the ecological and economic organization of the territory of the Republic of Moldova and its regions is considered. The assessment of the intensity of the ecological and economic state of the country's territory was carried out and the possibility of optimizing the structure of land use on the basis of improving the balance of various types of land use was shown. It is established that a characteristic feature of the land use structure in Moldova is the dominance of lands with a high anthropogenic load, which occupy 64 % of the country's territory. The indicators of the ecological and economic state of the territory of the country and its regions for the current land use structure and for the proposed variant of its optimization are calculated. The relationship between the relative coefficient of tension of the ecological and economic state and the coefficient of natural protection of the territory is revealed. It is shown that the land use structure developed in Moldova caused a high degree of tension in the ecological and economic state of its territory, which can be reduced by 1.3-2.7 times when implementing the proposed measures.