Disturbance of Cell Proliferation in Response to Mobile Phone Frequency Radiation
The aim of study was to determine the influence of mobile phone frequency radiation on the proliferation, cytoskeleton structure, and mitotic index of V79 cells after 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h of exposure. V79 cells were cultured in standard laboratory conditions and exposed to continuous-wave (CW) RF/MW radiation of 935 MHz, electric field strength of (8.2±0.3) V m-1, and specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.12 W kg-1. To identify proliferation kinetics, the cells were counted for each hour of exposure 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h after respective exposures. Microtubule proteins were determined using specific immunocytochemical methods. Cell smears were analysed under a fluorescent microscope. The study included negative and positive controls. Mitotic index was determined by estimating the number of dividing cells 24 h after exposure and dividing it with the total number of cells. In comparison to the controls, cell proliferation declined in cells exposed for three hours 72 h after irradiation (p<0.05). Microtubule structure was clearly altered immediately after three hours of irradiation (p<0.05). The mitotic index in RF/MW-exposed cells did not differ from negative controls. However, even if exposure did not affect the number of dividing cells, it may have slowed down cell division kinetics as a consequence of microtubule impairment immediately after exposure.
Over the years, due to rapid technological progress, radiation from man-made sources exceeded that of natural origin. There is a general concern regarding a growing number of appliances that use radiofrequency/ microwave (RF/MW) radiation with particular emphasis on mobile communication systems. Since nonthermal biological effects and mechanisms of RF/MW radiation are still uncertain, laboratory studies on animal models, tissues, cells, and cell free system are of extraordinary importance in bioelectromagnetic research. We believe that such investigations play a supporting role in public risk assessment. Cellular systems with the potential for a clear response to RF/MW exposures should be used in those studies. It is known that organism is a complex electrochemical system where processes of oxidation and reduction regularly occur. One of the plausible mechanisms is connected with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Depending on concentration, ROS can have both benefi cial and deleterious effects. Positive effects are connected with cell signalling, defence against infectious agents, and proliferative cell ability. On the other hand, excessive production, which overloads antioxidant defence mechanism, leads to cellular damage with serious potential for disease development. ROS concentration increase within the cell caused by RF/MW radiation seems to be a biologically relevant hypothesis to give clear insight into the RF/MW action at non-thermal level of radiation. In order to better understand the exact mechanism of action and its consequences, further research is needed in the fi eld. We would like to present current knowledge on possible biological mechanisms of RF/MW actions.
Non-Thermal Biomarkers of Exposure to Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation
This article gives a review or several hypotheses on the biological effects of non-thermal radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) radiation and discusses our own findings from animal and in vitro studies performed over the last decade. We have found that RF/MW radiation disturbs cell proliferation and leads to cell differentiation in the bone marrow, which is reflected in the peripheral blood of rats. Repeated RF/MW radiation can also temporarily disrupt melatonin turnover. The observed changes seem to be a sign of adaptation to stress caused by irradiation rather than of malfunction. The article looks further into the basic mechanisms of RF/MW biological action, including cell growth parameters, colony-forming ability, viability, and the polar and apolar protein cytoskeleton structures. The observed reversible cell changes significantly obstructed cell growth. In contrast to the apolar intermediate proteins, the intracellular polar microtubule and actin fibres were damaged by radiation in a time-dependent manner. These significantly altered parameters can be considered as the biomarkers of exposure. Future research should combine dosimetry, experimental studies, and epidemiological data.
Assessment of Cyto/Genotoxicity of Irinotecan in V79 Cells Using the Comet, Micronucleus, and Chromosome Aberration Assay
Irinotecan is a topoisomerase I interactive agent, widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The genotoxic effects of the maximum single dose (18 μg mL-1), recommended monotherapy dose (9 μg mL-1), and recommended combined therapy dose (4.5 μg mL-1) of irinotecan were studied on V79 cells using the comet assay, chromosome aberration assay, and micronucleus test. The cells were treated with irinotecan for 2 h or 24 h. The statistical significance of the results was determined using the one-way ANOVA test and a nonparametric Mann Whitney U test. The comet assay did not show dose-dependent or time-dependent effects. The chromosome aberration analysis showed large DNA rearrangements, i.e., chromosome exchanges. Although the exposed cultures showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells in respect to control, no dose-dependent relation was established among the treated cultures. Time-dependent effect was also not observed.
The unfavourable outcomes of mobile phone use on male fertility have still not been fully elaborated. To establish the potentially adverse effects of everyday exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RF) on humans, we performed a controlled animal study that aimed to investigate the influence of RF radiation on rat testis histology as well as the amount, mobility, and structure of epididymal free sperm cell population. Eighteen adult male rats were divided into two groups of nine. One group comprised sham-exposed control animals, while the other group endured total body irradiation for an hour daily during two weeks. A 915 MHz RF field, power density of 2.4 W m-2 and strength of 30 V m-1 was generated in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic chamber. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.6 W kg-1. Body mass and temperature were measured before and after each exposure treatment. Immediately after the last exposure, the animals were sacrificed and testes removed and prepared for histological analysis. The free sperm cells were collected from the cauda epididymis and their quantity, quality, and morphology were microscopically determined using a haemocytometer. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was observed. This study found no evidence of an unfavourable effect of the applied RF radiation on testicular function or structure. Based on these results, we can conclude that short-time intermittent exposure to RF radiation does not represent a significant risk factor for rat reproductive functions.