The paper presents research conducted on the optimization of urban water supply networks. One direction of optimization follows the use of GIS models for digitization on components system. The use of water supply system operation depends on the proper functioning of the structural and functional components.
In the analysis it was found that the main components of the system are the following: capture, headrace, puming stations, reservoirs, distribution networks.
Each component is made up of a multitude of sub-components with specific structural and functional character. Using GIS program it follows to specify custom properties using layers of structural and functional domains. Autocad Civil 3D, GisNet Set, ArcGis Server and Autocad Toolbase programs allowed to obtain thematic maps on specific areas of the system. The model of the study can vary from simple to complex and can be generalized to any water supply system for a specific use (urban area, villages, tourist resorts, shopping complexes etc.).
The development of a GIS model that includes both information on real estate cadaster and water supply networks is an efficient one. The paper presents the stages of making such a model, starting from field measurements, to structuring the database and custom layouts. Today’s large volume of data requires information to be centralized into tables that are then attached to graphical entities. In the analysis it was considered that the main components of the real estate cadaster system are the field, the parcel, the owner, and for the water supply network distribution networks, hydrants and manhole. GIS programs aim to specifying properties on custom layouts on structural and functional areas. Autocad and ArcMap software allow you to get themed maps on specific system domains. The study model can be simple to complex and can be generalized for any hydro-urban system (urban localities, rural localities, industrial areas, etc.).
The work involves the realization of a GIS model that includes both information on real estate cadastre and water supply networks. This shows the stages of making such a model, starting from field measurements, to structuring the database and custom layouts. In the study, the distribution pipelines equipped with fire hydrants and the existing building types in the area were considered as the main elements. Buildings were classified according to importance, height, destination, mapping indexes, etc. and have been integrated into the GIS model. GIS programs aim at specifying as much as possible the textual data attached to perform complex analyzes. Autocad and ArcMap programs allow you to get thematic maps on building types, pipeline network analysis on which hydrants are located, and how to protect firewalls. The study model was developed only for a sector in the city of Iaşi, but it can be extended to an application that can be used in other urban areas for the purpose of being used by the water-channel directorate, the intervention teams, the public administration local, etc.
The Moldavian Plateau and Plain have few drinking water sources (the case of Iaşi and Vaslui Counties). The main type of fresh water sources are groundwater and surface water. The Moldavian Plateau rural settlements are affected the most by the lack of viable, unpolluted water sources to ensure a volume able to cover the consumers’ demand. The pollution phenomenon induced by the non-availability of rural sewerage systems and also by the settlements’ areas foundation rocks have decreased the groundwater and surface water sources quality parameters. The adduction, transport and distribution networks of water supply systems are affected by the „water loss“ phenomenon. Water management in a transmission and distribution network must correlate the number of water sources, available volume, acceptable quality parameters and inherent water losses from networks with the consumers’ demands. The optimisation of water management in a given geographic space has led to the establishment of „regional water supply systems“. This process relies on the minimisation of water losses. The case study carried out in Iaşi County shows the importance of the regional water supply system development through optimal exploitation of Moldavian Plateau and Plain water sources.
Water losses are present in all water supply system pipes. Their parameters and value vary depending on the constructional and functional features of the pipes (diameter, material, pressure, embedding environment, location, position etc.). The phenomenon is present in all water supply systems networks in Romania as well as globally. The water supply pipes within the regional water supply system are located in areas with diversified relief, from plateaus and hills to plains. The studies and researches were carried out in the geographical placement area of the Timişeşti-Iaşi pipeline. The geographic area studied is enclosed in Siret and Prut hydrographic basins. The paper aims to establish a correlation between the detection methods of water leaks from pipes and the areal relief features in Iaşi County. At the same time, it is highlighted the impact of the variation of the geographical relief characteristics on the water loss management on different type of pipes.
This study compares the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat-8 OLI imagery by investigating the relationships between the land surface temperature (LST), NDBI and NDVI. The urban heat island (UHI) represents the phenomenon of higher atmospheric and surface temperatures occurring in urban area or metropolitan area than in the surrounding rural areas due to urbanization. With the development of remote sensing technology, it has become an important approach to urban heat island research. Landsat data were used to estimate the LST, NDBI and NDVI from four seasons for Iasi municipality area. This paper indicates than there is a strong linear relationship between LST and NDBI, whereas the relationship between LST and NDVI varies by season. This paper suggests, NDBI is an accurate indicator of surface UHI effects and can be used as a complementary metric to the traditionally applied NDVI.
Earth observation and space analysis of land areas, oceanic and atmospheric phenomena is a necessity nowadays.
European Space Agency (ESA) is developing a new family of satellites, called Sentinel, in order to perform the operational needs of the environmental monitoring program, Copernicus. Since 2014 until now ESA have successfully launched four satellites, which have a proven track record.
This paper contains information about Sentinel constellation, features of the satellite images and also the applications of Sentinel satellite images. This paper also describes how to purchase satellite data and the software that can be used to view and analysis data are named.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes of land cover and land use of study area, in two different periods, based on Sentinel satellite images.