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Open access

Ismail Azman and Abd Razak Mohd Ridwan


The transformation in international business landscape has changed organizational management especially reward administration. This is done in order to maintain the organization’s competitiveness in global market place. In the field of reward administration, an emerging trend can be observed whereby most organizations are moving toward the application of psychological elements in administering organizational reward system. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the association between performance-based reward administration and interactional justice. The proposed model was empirically tested using a sample of 113 employees from fire and rescue agency in Peninsular Malaysia. This study found an evidence that performance-based reward administration (i.e., communication, participation and performance appraisal) is positively and significantly associated with interactional justice. This findings proves that the ability of administrators to appropriately implement communication openness, inspire participative decision-making and organize fairness performance appraisal in administering performance-based reward have significantly evoked the feeling of interactional justice when employees perceived that they are being fairly treated in the reward system.

Open access

Azman Ismail, Nurul Afiqah Foboy, Nur Atiqah Abdullah, Norazila Mat and Zafir Khan Mohamed Makhbul


The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the administrator’s role (i.e., communication and delivery mode) in training programmes, trainees’ motivation, and training maintenance. Data were collected from 123 employees of various military health centres in Malaysia. The results of SmartPLS path model analysis revealed two important findings: firstly, communication and trainees’ motivation are positively and significantly related to training maintenance. Secondly, delivery mode and trainees’ motivation are positively and significantly related to training maintenance. As a whole, these findings posit that trainees’ motivation does act as an effective mediating variable in the relationship between the administrator’s role in training programmes and training maintenance in the studied organizations. Further discussions, implications and conclusion are presented in the succeeding sections.

Open access

Nurul Fatihah Azman, Wan-Zaidah Abdullah, Norsarwany Mohamad, Rosnah Bahar, Muhammad Farid Johan, R. Diana, Binti Hanafi Sarifah, Surini Yusoff, Ariffin Nasir, Azizah Othman, Surianti Sukeri, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Adil Hussein, Rozita Hassan, Padillah Yahya, Rosline Hassan and Bin Alwi Zilfalil



Thalassemia is a common monogenic disease in Southeast Asia. Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia require frequent blood transfusions, which can lead to iron overload and subsequent organ dysfunction and damage. Iron overload is avoided by chelation therapy. There are 3 types of chelators available for iron chelation therapy, namely, desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox. Although practical guidelines are available for the management of transfusion-dependent thalassemia, not all countries are able to provide “ideal” treatment for their patients.


To discuss the scope of iron chelation practices including the types of chelators that are available in Southeast Asia, and explore issues relevant to the treatment of transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients in this region.


A literature search for information pertaining to thalassemia and its management from 2000 to 2015 was conducted using the following websites: PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SpringerLink.


Not all Southeast Asian countries have yet published detailed information about their iron chelation practice and not all countries in Southeast Asia have uniform practices for thalassemia management based on published recommendations.


Advances in treatment have improved the management of thalassemic patients. However, because of various issues, not all countries are able to provide an ideal treatment for their patients. Southeast Asian countries should work together to prevent this inherited disease.