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Irina Ovchinnikova

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of the hesitations in adolescents’ narratives. The speech disfluencies in the adolescents differ from those of the adults by frequency of self-corrections and pauses of hesitation. The adolescents rarely turn to repair their narratives but often interrupt the speech flow by pauses while telling a story stimulated by a wordless book. The lack of self-corrections reflects the specific problems with self-control and self-regulation due to immaturity of the executive function. Narrating about a complex multi-propositional event, the adolescents often experienced hesitation that provoked more self-repairs and hesitation pauses compared to the telling the story about a simple event. The description of the relatively simple content was more complicated syntactically than that of the multi-propositional event. Meanwhile, the content complexity significantly influences frequency of the silent hesitation pauses.

Open access

Irina Ovchinnikova and Anna Pavlova

Abstract

The paper presents the case study of lexical selection in Alzheimer-type dementia. Lexical substitutions in poem recitation and conversations of a Russian speaker, who suffered Alzheimer-type dementia, were analyzed on the background of the lexical retrieval and slip-of-the-tongue phenomena. The classification of the substitutions is worked out on the basis of the links between a target word and its substitutions. The current context plays an essential role as natural priming for a substitution in a poem recitation. Some words have predisposition to be lost; the units belong to the figurative language or to the category of infrequent lexemes. In conversation, the patient masked failures by referring to the circumstances and appealing to the sense of humor. Positive emotions facilitate recollecting of words, involved in the description of real-life events, due to the relatively spared nondeclarative memory. The changes in the substitutions and paraphasias categories between AD stages are statistically significant.