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Ireneusz Sosna

Abstract

Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare). The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

Open access

Ireneusz Stefan Sosna

Abstract

The study was conducted in 2001–2012 next to Wrocław (southwestern Poland). The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of type of nursery trees of pear cvs ‘Carola’ and ‘Dicolor’ budded on quince S1 rootstock on growth and cropping, as well as fruit quality of two pear cultivars. The trees were planted in the spring of 2001 in 4 replications with 5 trees per plot. Trees were planted in rows with spacing 1.2 × 3.5 m (2381 trees per hectare). Three types of nursery trees, all without feathers, were planted: two-year-old (3 years in a nursery), one-year-old maidens (2 years in a nursery) and annual grafts (only 1 year in a nursery). Tree canopies were formed as a spindle and were trained in the Güttingen-V system. Until the twelfth year after planting, growth and yield were significantly affected by the type of nursery trees. One-year-old maidens were characterized by the strongest vigor in orchard, while pears planted as two-year-old trees grew rather weak (especially with ‘Dicolor’ cv.). Planting two-year-old trees didn’t have any clear positive influence on tree cropping in the orchard. The final results of the study proved that trees planted as annual grafts, irrespective of cultivar, yielded significantly worse. The type of nursery trees had no clear influence on mean fruit weight.

Open access

Ireneusz Sosna and Daria Kortylewska

Abstract

In order to increase the profitability of pear production, a greater density of weak growing trees per area unit should be planted. In Poland, the most frequently used pear dwarfing rootstocks are quince clones. The main disadvantage of them is a physiological incompatibility with some cultivars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rootstock, interstock, and intermediate stock on growth and productivity of two summer pear cultivars, which are not compatible with the quince rootstock. Twoyear- old pear trees of ‘Radana’ and ‘Clapp’s Favourite’ cvs of different compositions were planted in the spring 2006. The following combinations were evaluated: ‘Radana’ and ‘Clapp’s Favourite’ on Caucasian pear seedlings, ‘Radana’ and ‘Clapp’s Favourite’ on quince SI with an intermediate stem piece of ’Doyenne du Comice’ and ‘Radana’ on Caucasian pear with ‘Pyrodwarf’ interstock. Up to the 6th year after planting, trees of ‘Radana’ grafted on Caucasian pear seedlings and on quince with intermediate stock yielded better than ‘Radana’ trees composed of Caucasian pear seedling and ‘Pyrodwarf’ interstock. ‘Clapp’s Favourite’ in all combinations had significantly heavier fruits. The highest crop efficiency index had ‘Radana’ on quince with ’Doyenne du Comice’ intermediate stock.