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  • Author: Irena Zdovc x
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Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae). Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed.


The term oronasal fistula refers to an acquired communication between the oral and nasal cavities, and can result from several conditions. However, oronasal fistula formation has not yet been described to be associated with bacterial infections. We have described in this case report for the first time a rapidly forming oronasal fistula and severe lingual lesions in a dog, involving an infection with Streptococcus canis. The patient was a 9-year-old male intact Golden Retriever with a nonspecific history of depression, mild pyrexia, anorexia and retching lasting for two days. Within four days he developed an extensive oronasal fistula, several pseudomembranous erosions, ulcerations and necrotic areas of the tongue and bronchopneumonia. Histopathology of the tongue revealed severe multifocal necrotizing and suppurative subchronic inflammation. Streptococcus canis, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage and the oronasal fistula. Despite the treatment, the dog developed necrotizing fasciitis and the owners elected euthanasia.



According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST) or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant.


The aim of the study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and epidemiological data of CA-MRSA ST80 and its occurrence in Slovenia. We retrospectively analyzed those CA-MRSA isolates that were isolated during microbiological procedures in microbiological laboratories between 2006 and 2013. Only CA-MRSA isolates from the national collection of CA-MRSA strains that belonged to ST80 (European clone) were analyzed. We determined the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), mec A genes, exfoliative toxin genes and type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We determined also spa type and sequence type.


ST80 was confirmed in only 2 (0.5%) out of 385 CA-MRSA isolates, collected in a national collection of CAMRSA. Both isolates were positive for the PVL genes, mec A gene, exfoliative toxin type D gene and SCCmec IV. One CA-MRSA isolate was confirmed in a wound swab taken from a 47-year-old male, and the second was isolated from blood cultures of a 69-year-old female. No epidemiological connections between them were found.


In Slovenia CA-MRSA infections caused by ST80 are rare. In the future, it is necessary that a surveillance study of CA-MRSA at the national level continues and CA-MRSA be considered as a public health threat.