Background: In recent years’ income inequality has been an economic issue. The primary instrument for redistributing income is personal income tax. However, based on economic theory income inequality concerns indicators such as wages, transfer payments, taxes, social security contributions, and geographical mobility. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of certain labor market indicators on personal income taxation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H). Methods/Approach: Since personal income taxation consists of a very broad definition and for the purpose of this research only, income from dependent (employment) activity is observed. The econometric analysis is conducted using error correction modeling, as well as forecast errors variance decomposition. Results: The error correction model is estimated, and the cointegrating equation indicates that monthly wage and number of employees statistically significantly positively affect personal income taxes in FB&H in the long-run. After two years, the selected labor market indicators explain a considerable part of forecasting error variance of personal income tax revenues. Conclusions: The implementation of reforms in the labor market and tax policies of the FB&H is suggested. In order to achieve necessary reforms, efficient governance and general stable political environment are required.
Background: A large body of empirical literature indicates that gender and financial literacy are significant determinants of individual financial performance.
Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to recognize the impact of the variable financial literacy and the variable gender on the variation of the financial performance using the regression analysis.
Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted using the systematically chosen random sample of Croatian financial consumers. The cross section linear regression model is estimated in order to assess how gender as a dummy variable and financial literacy as an ordinal categorical variable impact financial performance.
Results: The results indicate that the average value of financial performance for men is higher than the average value of financial performance for women at the same financial literacy level. Furthermore, a higher level of financially literacy is related to a higher level of financial performance.
Conclusions: Both gender and financial literacy have a statistically significant impact on individual financial performance. Increasing financial literacy and understanding gender differences in terms of financial literacy and financial well-being should be of interest to financial educators in their struggles to improve financial situation of citizens and for educators to create financial education programs intended for men and women.
Since the endogenous growth model appeared in the economic theory, taxation has been considered as one of the key determinants of the economic growth. In the public finance theory, taxation is considered to have a negative impact on economic growth, which is explained by implications of tax revenues distortions on the economic activity. This assumption has been investigated by many empirical studies. The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of personal income taxation on economic conditions in Croatia in the long-run. After providing a brief insight into the economic and the public finance theory regarding taxation and economic growth, previous relevant research is presented. The empirical analysis of the impact of personal income taxation on economic conditions in Croatia is conducted using the Johansen cointegration approach. The existence of cointegration is examined and the error correction model is estimated using monthly data from January 2000 to March 2016. The results of the research show that personal income taxation in Croatia has a significant negative impact on the economic growth in the long-run, which is in line with the economic theory and relevant empirical research.
Irena Palić, Ksenija Dumičić and Barbara Grofelnik
Personal income taxation remains an ongoing issue in Croatia. It is used as an important instrument of income redistribution. Moreover, it directly affects purchasing power of the working population. Numerous changes have been made in this type of taxation since the establishment of Croatian tax system. The aim of this paper is to analyse possible determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia. After offering brief insight into public finance theory regarding personal income taxation, the structure of personal income taxation in Croatia is explained. The empirical analysis of the determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia is conducted using cointegration analysis. Economic conditions, average monthly wage, and number of taxpayers are used as determinants of personal income tax used in this research. The cointegration analysis is conducted using monthly data from January 2008 to February 2016. The results of the research show a statistically significant negative impact of economic conditions and statistically significant positive impact of average monthly wage and number of taxpayers on personal income taxation in long run, what is in line with economic and public finance theory.