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  • Author: Irena Kondova Topuzovska x
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Clinical Investigations. Comparison of Directigen Flu A+B with Real Time PCR in the Diagnosis of Influenza / Сравнение Иммунохроматографического Метода (Directigen Flu A+B) И Теста RT-PCR При Инфекциях Гриппа

Abstract

Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with influenza is the reason why physicians need rapid high-sensitivity influenza diagnostic tests that require no complex lab equipment and can be performed and interpreted within 15 min. The Aim of this study was to compare the rapid Directigen Flu A+B test with real time PCR for detection of influenza viruses in the Republic of Macedonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred-eight respiratory samples (combined nose and throat swabs) were routinely collected for detection of influenza virus during influenza seasons. Forty-one patients were pediatric cases and 59 were adult. Their mean age was 23 years. The patients were allocated into 6 age groups: 0 - 4 yrs, 5 - 9 yrs, 10 - 14 yrs, 15 - 19 yrs, 20-64 yrs and > 65 yrs. Each sample was tested with Directigen Flu A+B and CDC real time PCR kit for detection and typisation/subtypisation of influenza according to the lab diagnostic protocol. RESULTS: Directigen Flu A+B identified influenza A virus in 20 (18.5%) samples and influenza B virus in two 2 (1.9%) samples. The high specificity (100%) and PPV of Directigen Flu A+B we found in our study shows that the positive results do not need to be confirmed. The overall sensitivity of Directigen Flu A+B is 35.1% for influenza A virus and 33.0% for influenza B virus. The sensitivity for influenza A is higher among children hospitalized (45.0%) and outpatients (40.0%) versus adults. CONCLUSION: Directigen Flu A+B has relatively low sensitivity for detection of influenza viruses in combined nose and throat swabs. Negative results must be confirmed.

Open access
Features of Parapneumonic Effusions

Abstract

Introduction: Parapneumonic effusions, as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), usually have a good course, but they sometimes progress into complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE) and empyema, thus becoming a significant clinical problem.

Aim: To review clinical and radiological features, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic options in parapneumonic effusions.

Material and methods: The analysis included 94 patients with parapneumonic effusion hospitalized at the University Infectious Diseases Clinic in Skopje during a 4 year period. Out of 755 patients with CAP, 175 (23.18%), had parapneumonic effusion. Thoracentesis was performed in 94 (53.71%) patients, 50 patients were with uncomplicated parapneumonic effusions (UCPPE) and 44 with complicated parapneumonic effusions (CPPE).

Results: More patients (59.57%) were male; the average age was 53.82±17.5 years. The most common symptoms included: fever (91; 96.81%), cough (80; 85.11%), pleuritic chest pain (68; 72.34%), dyspnea (65; 69.15%). Alcoholism was the most common comorbidity registered in 12 (12.77%) patients. Macroscopically, effusion was yellow and clear in most cases (36; 38.29%). Localization of pleural effusion was often in the left costophrenic angle (53; 56.38%) and ultrasonographic non-septated complex. Between the two groups of effusions there was a significant difference between the ERS, WBC and CRP in serum and CRP in pleural fluid. Statistical difference existed in terms of days of hospitalization with a longer hospital stay for patients with CPPE (p <0.0001).

Conclusion: Patients with parapneumonic effusion have the symptoms of acute respiratory infection and frequent accompanying diseases. Future diagnostic and therapeutic treatment depends on pleural fluid features and imaging lung findings.

Open access
in PRILOZI
The Role of Serum Coagulation Factors in the Differential Diagnosis of Patients with Pneumonia and Parapneumonic Effusion

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the participations of the serum coagulations and fibrinolysis factors that contribute to the differential diagnosis of the patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) without effusion, uncomplicated parapneumonic effusion (UCPPE) and complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE).

The coagulations system is fundamental for the maintenance of homeostasis, and contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for CAP and the parapneumonic effusion. The factors of coagulations and fibrinolysis participate in the cellular proliferation and migration as in the synthesis of the inflammatory mediators.

We evaluated the laboratory profile of coagulations and fibrinolysis in the serum of 148 patients with CAP without effusion, 50 with UCPPE and 44 with CPPE. We determined the test of the coagulation cascade which measures the time elapsed from the activation of the coagulation cascade at different points to the fibrin generation. As a consequence, there is an activation of the fibrinolytic system with the increased D-dimer levels measured in the plasma in the three groups.

The patients were with mean age ± SD (53,82 ± 17,5) min – max 18–93 years. A significantly higher number of thrombocytes was in the group with CPPE with median 412 × 109/L (rank 323–513 × 109/L). The extended activation of the prothrombin time (aPTT) was significantly higher in the same group of patients with median of 32 sec. (rank 30–35 sec). The mean D-dimer plasma level was 3266,5 ± 1292,3 ng/ml in patients with CPPE, in CAP without effusion 1646,6 ± 1204 ng/ml and in UCPPE 1422,9 ± 970 ng/ml.

The coagulations system and the fibrinolysis play important role in the development and pathophysiology of CAP and the parapneumonic effusions.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Evidence Based Practice in Using Antibiotics for Acute Tonsillitis in Primary Care Practice

Abstract

The increased use of antibiotics for acute tonsillitis is a public health problem. 80% of the antibiotic prescriptions for acute tonsillitis are done in the Primary Care practice (PCP). The inappropriate use of the antibiotic causes bacterial resistance and treatment failure. Only patients with acute tonsillitis caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) have benefit of the antibiotic treatment, which is a predict cause in 5-20%. In order to assess the antibiotic prescribing for acute tonsillitis by the doctors in the PCP in Macedonia we use the data from the national project about antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections which was conducted in November 2014 during a period of 4 weeks as part of the E-quality program sponsored by the IPCRG. 86 general practitioners from Macedonia have participated. The group of 1768 patients, from 4 months to 88 years of age, with diagnosis of acute tonsillitis was analyzed. The antibiotic prescriptions according to the Centor score criteria were compared to the Cochran’s guidelines which are translated and recommended as national guidelines. 88.8% of the patients with acute tonsillitis were treated with antibiotics, of which 52.9% with Centor score 0 to 2 were treated inappropriate. The diagnosis is mostly made based on the clinical picture and the symptoms. Only (23.6%) of the patients were treated with antibiotics (Penicillin V and cephalexin) according to the guidelines.

We concluded that there is a low adherence to the national guidelines. The clinical assessment is not accurate in determining the etiology. Also, there is a high nonadherence in prescribing the first choice of antibiotics. We emphasize the need to change the general practitioners’ prescription behavior according to the guidelines.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Clinical Significance of Quantitative HBs Antigen in the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

Abstract

The assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is of great importance in evaluating the phases of chronic hepatitis B viral infection, prompt administration of antiviral therapy, prevention of disease progression and late complications of CHB infection. Aim: to investigate the clinical significance of quantitative HBs antigen as a predictor for liver fibrosis in patients with HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B and inactive carriers. Material and Methods: the study included 44 treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B, divided into two groups, HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection or inactive carriers (IC) and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients. All patients underwent laboratory, serologic testing, ultrasound and transient elastography (TE). In both patient groups, quantitative HBs antigen (HBsQ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) and liver fibrosis were analyzed. Results: The value of HBsQ is significantly higher in patients with HBeAg negative CHB 2477.02±4535.44 IU/ml than in the IC group 8791±11891 IU/ml; Z=3.32, p<0.001 (p=0.0009). In IC patients, 1 (4.76%) had fibrosis and 20 (95.24%)) did not have fibrosis. Out of 23 patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B, 8 (34.78%) had fibrosis and 15 (65.22%) did not have fibrosis. Patients with HBeAg negative hepatitis B had significantly higher liver fibrosis than IC; Fisher Exact Test p<0.05 (p=0.02). The increase of HBsQ for one single unit (IU/ml) does not have predictive value for fibrosis (Ext (B) =1.00), 95% C.I. for EXP (B): 1.00-1.00 / p>0.05. Conclusion: Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen has intermediate weak statistically insignificant prediction for liver fibrosis R=0.25 (p<0.10).

Open access
in PRILOZI
Early complications after lung resections at patients treated for lung cancer with and without Neoadjuvant Hemiotheraphy

Abstract

Background: Anatomical lung resection offers the best chance of cure for patients with localized lung cancer. Very often late diagnoses, advanced stage of the disease limit radical anatomical surgical resection. Use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy made some of the cases operable, and later they were surgically treated.

Aim: to evaluate early (surgical) complications at patients with neoadjuvant therapy.

Material and Methods: We compare 36 patients surgically treated with lung resection, before treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (3 to 6 cycles with platinum based regiments under protocol) with 42 patients surgically treated without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in the same period, in the 2009 and 2010.

Results: At the group with neoadjuvant chemotherapy we register more intraoperative and early postoperative complications as: bleeding 10 vs. 7, p=0.63, changes in lung vessels 3 vs. 0, p=0.8, prolonged air leak 9 vs. 6, p=0.63, stump fistula (at pneumectomy patients) 2 vs. 0, p=0.76, pneumonia 9 vs. 3, p=0.86, wound infection 2 vs 0, p=0.73, atelectasis 8 vs. 2, p=0.88, prolonged pleural drainage 10 vs. 4, p=0.87. There, also, was no difference in 30 days mortality rate between groups.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy increased theperioperative complications in this group of patients compared with a similar group undergoing anatomical lung resection in the same institution. The most common complication in patients receiving induction chemotherapy was detected at the group with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Strategies to prevent these complications will be important, especially if chemotherapy before resection becomes the standard for all patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Open access
Association of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Infection in Critically III Macedonian Patients

Abstract

Background: Infection by the pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus results in significant pathology disease in many cases in different populations worldwide. The natural killer (NK) cells are among the major effectors important in early innate immune responses to viral infections, interacting with host cells through their activating or inhibiting receptors.

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze Killer Ig-Like Receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in critically ill Macedonian patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 infection.

Material and Methods: The studied sample consists of 63 critically ill Macedonian patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 infection. The population genetics analysis package, Arlequin, was used for analysis of the data.

Results: We found that all 16 KIR genes were observed in the studied individuals and framework genes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4, and KIR3DL2) were present in all individuals. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Comparison of KIR gene frequencies between critically ill H1N1/09 Macedonian patients and healthy subjects reveals statistically significant difference for frequency of KIR2DL1 (F=1 in the patients group, and 0.94 in the control group, p=0.045).

Conclusion: We did not found any significant association of all 16 KIR genes or KIR genotypes with critically ill (H1N1)pdm09 Macedonian patients, except for the KIR2DL1.

Open access
Giant Mediastinal Thymic Cyst

Abstract

The authors present a rare case of giant mediastinal cyst which arises from the thymus gland, and goes down in both pleural spaces, especially in the right chest cavity where a dominant part of the cyst was present. The cyst was full with 2.5 liters of transparent fluid, and compressed surrounding structures – heart and both lungs, especially the right one which was partially collapsed.

The patient was a 52 years old woman, without any clinical symptoms. Accidentally, on the screened chest X-ray a shading in the distal third of the right chest was detected.

The case was well documented with a CT of the chest, and an indication for surgical treatment was made. The surgery was done successfully in general anesthesia according to the small right anterior thoracotomy from which a giant part of the cyst was mobilized, which was in the right pleural cavity, but, also, the thymus with the origin of the cyst in the anterior and superior mediastinum was completely removed. In the end, a part of the cyst which was in the left pleural cavity was removed.

Open access
in PRILOZI
Surgical Treatment of Pleural Empyema – Our Results

Abstract

Pleural infection is a frequent clinical condition. Prompt treatment has been shown to reduce morbidity, mortality and duration of hospital stay. Unfortunately, advanced stages of empyema need to use extensive surgery - decortications or thoracoplasty. Early recognition of the parapneumonic effusion and the adequate treatment with thoracentesis or pleural drainage, which is minimally invasive, is possible not to prograde the process and not to become empyema.

Aim: To analyze the results of the surgical treatment in patients with empyema treated at Clinic for thoracic surgery.

Material and methods: In the retrospective study we analyzed 234 patients with empyema which were treated at the Clinic for Thoracic Surgery in 5 year period (2011-2015). The mean age of the patients was 51.94 years. They were treated with pleural drainage, decortications or thoracoplasty.

Results: With pleural drainage were treated 165/234 (70.51%) patients, of which successfully were finished 124/165 (75.15%), but 41/165 (24.85%) were indicated after the decortications. A total of 108/234 (46.15%) were treated with decortications from which, primary decortications were indicated in 67/234 (28.63%) patients. 5/234 (2.14%) patients were treated with thoracoplasty – 3 of the patients with decortications and 2 with primary indicated thoracoplasty according to the local findings, long term untreated empyema and bad general condition. The Mean hospitalization was 17.4 days, of which 13.4 days after surgery. In the group with primary drainage it was detected a lethal outcome in 7/124 (5.64%) patients, 5/105 (4.76%) in the group with decortications and 2/5 (40%) in the group with thoracoplasty.

Conclusion: Early detection of the parapneumonic effusion and the adequate treatment will prevent the appearance of empyema. If the empyema is detected it is necessary as early as possible to start the treatment with minimally invasive pleural drainage. In earlier stages it is possible to use less invasive decortications, using VATS than the open thoracotomy decortication which is more extensive surgical intervention.

Open access
in PRILOZI