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Open access

Mohammad-Reza Zafarghandi, Iraj Nazari, Morteza Taghavi, Abbas Rashidi, Sanaz Karimi Dardashti, Donya Sadid, Leyli Esmaili, Seyed Mostafa Mahmoodi and Masood Mousavi


Despite significant advances in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and below-the-knee critical ischemia, there are ongoing efforts to achieve a method with low complication, high success rate and persistence of long-term effects.

The aim of the study was to examine the outcome of angioplasty in patients with below-the-knee critical ischemia referred to Hospital.

Material and methods. This semi-experimental study conducted on diabetics patients treated with PTA (Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) with critical ischemia of lower limbs referred to Sina Hospital. After discharge, the patients were followed weekly for the first month and then monthly up to 12 months. The procedure short-term effects were examined through evaluation of wound healing as well as patients' recovery and pain relief, after one month. Given the distribution type, parametric and non-parametric test were used to compare the results before and after treatment. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between variables.

Results. Twenty four patients participated in this study. The mean ankle-brachial index (ABI) at baseline was 0.55±0.17. A month after angioplasty, the index increased statistically significant to 0.93±0.16. The mean health score expressed by the patients at baseline was 5.48±1.39. A month after angioplasty, it was significantly increased (6.32±1.24). The mean pain score before enrollment was 6.68±2.52 (according to VAS scale). There was a significant decrease over time (3.45±1.13). The overall mean score of all patients at Rutherford Classification was 3.88±0.63 at baseline. During the 1st month and 6th month follow-up, it was changed to Class 0 that was statistically significant in the first month.

Conclusions. This study represents the mid-term outcomes of PTA. Although PTA treatment was associated with improved pain scores, satisfaction with health, classification of limb ischemia and diabetic foot ulcers, the effects only remain short-term and mid-term. However, long-term efficacy of PTA needs to be investigated further.

Open access

Mohammad-Reza Zafarghandi, Iraj Nazari, Morteza Taghavi, Javad Salimi, Majid Moini and Shahnam Askarpour

Aim of the study was to comparison between internal jugular vs. subclavian vein cuffed tunnel catheter placement for dialysis.

Material and methods. Cases who required central venous catheter for dialysis were included in this study. Forty cases were included in this study and divided to two groups. Catheters were placed randomly in internal jugular vein or subclavian. Patients were followed for 6 months. Early and late complications of catheter’s placement were recorded. Analysis was done using Spss ver 13.0 (Chicago, IL, USA).

Results. There were no significant differences between subclavian and internal jugular vein regarding occurrence of infection resulted in extraction or treatment. Also there were no significant differences regarding occurrence of thrombosis resulted in extraction or treatment. Failure rate was significantly higher in cases with internal jugular vein catheter compared to cases with subclavian vein catheter (p=0.04).

Conclusion. Failure rate was significantly higher in cases with internal jugular vein catheter compared to subclavian cathether. Subclavian catheter is more appropriate route for catheter placement.

Open access

Mohammad Rasoul Nazari Sendi, Iraj Hassanzad Navroodi, Hassan Poorbabaei, Mohammad Sheikhkanlu Milan and Behzad Bakhshandeh


The lime tree is one of the rare and valuable species that found in the Hyrcanian moist forests with economic as well as ecological value. Identification of the quantitative and qualitative features of this species is important. In order to investigate the stem form of this species in the Shafaroud forests of Guilan Province, 141 lime trees in 39 plots were analyzed during the four stages of small pole, pole, saw-timber, and maturity. In each plot, stem-diameter at different heights was measured by using the Spiegel Relaskop. Measurements and analyses included diameter at breast height( d.b.h.) and total height. Same parameters was calculated: stem form factor based on diameter, stem form factor based on volume, form quotient, slenderness factor, ratio of stem height to total height, ratio of stem volume to total volume, correlation, and coefficient of determination to describe stem form factor. The results showed that the average stem form factor based on diameter was 0.554. The average stem form factor based on volume was 0.576, average form quotient was 2.32 and slenderness factor was 35.04%. The average ratio of stem height to total height was 82.45. In addition the results indicated a strong relationship between diameter at breast height and trunk coefficient. The ratio of stem volume to total volume revealed that 64.44 of lime volume is located in the bottom half of the trunk. The value of the parameters described here is towards a better description of stand characteristics. Obtained results indicating stability for natural lime tree in Iran.