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  • Author: Iqbal A. Khan x
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Open access

Niharika, B.P. Agrawal, Iqbal A. Khan and Zahid A. Khan

Abstract

Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been extensively used in aircraft turbine-engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high performance automotive parts, marine applications, medical devices and sports equipment. However, wide-spread use of this alloy has limits because of difficulty to machine it. One of the major difficulties found during machining is development of poor quality of surface in the form of higher surface roughness. The present investigation has been concentrated on studying the effects of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness of the product during turning of titanium alloy. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to collect data for surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the cutting parameters. The model equation is also formulated to predict surface roughness. Optimal values of cutting parameters were determined through response surface methodology. A 100% desirability level in the turning process for economy was indicated by the optimized model. Also, the predicted values that were obtained through regression equation were found to be in close agreement to the experimental values.

Open access

H.Z. Khan, Abdullah, M. Amin, N. Akbar, M.F. Saleem and A. Iqbal

Abstract

Micronutrients play a significant role in various plant metabolic processes and are required in much smaller amount by the plants as compared to the macronutrients. An experiment was conducted during 2011, at the Agronomic research area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to investigate the response of autumn planted maize to ZnSO4 and MnSO4 levels (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1) and in combinations (5 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 5 kg ha-1 MnSO4, 10 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 10 kg ha-1 MnSO4 and 15 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 15 kg ha-1 MnSO4). The randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replicates was used with plot size of 3 m x 6 m. The crop was planted on ridges 75 cm apart with recommended plant to plant distance of 25 cm. Maximum values for plant height at maturity (225 cm), cob diameter (4.29 cm), number of grains per cob (415), biological yield (20.15 tons ha-1), grain yield (7.42 tons ha-1) and seed protein content (8.96%) were recorded where 15 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 + 15 kg ha-1 MnSO4 was applied.

Open access

Ayaz Arif Khan, M. Javed, A. Rauf Khan, Yousaf Iqbal, Asif Majeed, Syed Zahid Hussain and S.K. Durrani

Abstract

Nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 particles were prepared by conventional sol-gel, citrate-nitrate sol-gel combustion and co-precipitation methods. The synthesized samples were annealed at 1000 °C for two hours and structural, chemical, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite were investigated. The structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique which confirmed the formation of single phase NiFe2O4 particles derived by the three methods. The chemical properties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy which confirmed the corresponding vibration modes in the samples. The optical properties were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The morphological study of the as-synthesized samples was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed the agglomerated nanoparticles of NiFe2O4. The magnetic properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behavior.

Open access

Milon Hossain, A.H.M Fazle Elahi, Shahida Afrin, Iqbal Mahmud, Haeng Muk Cho and Mubarak Ahmad Khan

Abstract

An experiment was carried out using glass fiber (GF) as reinforcing materials with unsaturated polyester matrix to fabricate composite by hand layup technique. Four layers of GF were impregnated by polyester resin and pressed under a load of 5 kg for 20 hours. The prepared composite samples were treated by prolonged exposure to heat for 1 hour at 60-150°C and compared with untreated GF-polyester composite. Different mechanical test of the fabricated composite were investigated. The experiment depicted significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the fabricated composite resulted from the heat treatment. The maximum tensile strength of 200.6 MPa is found for 90°C heat-treated sample. The mechanical properties of the composite do seem to be very affected negatively above 100°C. Water uptake of the composite was carried out and thermal stability of the composite was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and it was found that the composite is stable up to 600°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the characteristic bond in the composite. Finally, the excellent elevated heat resistant capacity of glass-fiber-reinforced polymeric composite shows the suitability of its application to heat exposure areas such as kitchen furniture materials, marine, and electric board.