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  • Author: Ionuţ Alin Cîrdei x
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Ionuț Alin Cirdei

Abstract

Energy security is a matter of particular importance to all the world's states, whether they are producers or consumers of energy resources. For a long time, fossil energy resources have been the only source of energy used on a planetary scale. When mankind realized that fossil energy resources are a finite source of energy and that their intensive use causes many environmental problems, the most important of which is related to global warming, they have tried to find alternative sources of energy. Thus, concerns have arisen about the use of renewable energy on a wider scale, with both individual concerns of states that have potential in this area and collective concerns, such as at EU level, which has proposed by 2020, the share of energy from renewable sources used by the Union states is at least 20% of total consumption. Renewable energy resources may be an alternative to fossil fuels, but at the same time it has a number of limitations and vulnerabilities. Ensuring energy security means a comprehensive approach, understanding of limitations and reducing vulnerabilities

Open access

Ionuţ Alin Cîrdei

Abstract

Ensuring energy security is a concern for all the world’s countries. For a long time, the issue of energy security has been looked at from the point of view of ensuring the energy resources necessary for the functioning of the economy and society and, implicitly, from the perspective of reducing dependence on imported energy resources. In reality, however, energy security must also be addressed from the perspective of states with energy resources, as their security can be jeopardized by disturbances that may occur during the operation or transport process or due to lower prices. Middle East countries, rich in energy resources, are currently vulnerable due to global oil price declines and instability and conflict in the region. This vulnerability may affect the supply of energyconsuming states and their energy security in the medium and long term, and not only.

Open access

Ionuţ Alin Cîrdei

Abstract

Modern society is characterized by the increasing interdependence between the actors of the international environment, in the conditions of globalization of all the fields of social life. Increasing interdependencies, together with the emergence of new risks and threats, which attempt to exploit systemic vulnerabilities, which are increasingly numerous and difficult to eliminate, bring a new issue to states and other security environment actors: to ensure the protection the infrastructure elements that are indispensable to the normal activity of the population, economic agents, nongovernmental organizations and state institutions. Critical Infrastructure Protection becomes an important point on the agenda of all decision-makers who are in a position to counter the asymmetric threats that jeopardize national interests and democratic values. Due to the multiplication of risks and threats and the multiplication of interdependencies between the various infrastructure elements, the protection of critical infrastructures can not be achieved effectively only by ensuring their physical protection. The cascading effects of a disturbance can be felt at the level of society as a whole, and it is therefore necessary to address the issue of ensuring the protection of critical infrastructures in a comprehensive manner including infrastructure and community resilience issues.

Open access

Ionuț Alin Cirdei

Abstract

In the 21st century, the international scene witnesses major changes in the security environment. There are many actions aimed at redefining spheres of influence and reaffirming states as great powers. The international scene is dominated by two entities that were antagonistic during the Cold War: Russia and NATO. In recent years, Russia is trying to impose itself again as a global actor and is therefore trying to consolidate its power in Europe and the world, both by reforming its armed forces and by participating in various conflicts in the hot zones of the world. Russia perceives NATO as its main adversary, which is trying to get closer to its vital space, reduce its spheres of influence and isolate it. As a reaction, Russia initiated a series of complex actions aimed at both maintaining buffer zones and banning access and limiting NATO's freedom of movement in the immediate vicinity of its borders. To this end, Russia has developed a series of capabilities to prevent the opponent from entering a certain area and to reduce or even forbid him any freedom of action once he has entered the area, this approach of Russia being part of the A2AD (Anti-access, Area Denial) policy

Open access

Ionut Alin Cîrdei

Abstract

In the last years the focus of the military specialists changed from the asymmetrical threats to the hybrid threats, seen as one of the main challenge for the security in the 21st century. The increased attention paid to hybrid threats is due to the events that took place in Ukraine, Syria and other confrontation areas and which highlighted the vulnerability of the modern societies and modern armies toward this type of actions. The use of hybrid type tactics can ensure the achievement of the main objectives of an international actor, with a low effort, usually without using the force, and can deny to the target/victim the possibility to take any defensive actions. The hybrid warfare can represent the war of the 21st century, a new type of direct or indirect confrontation, with effects on short and medium term, impossible to be anticipated.

Open access

Ionuţ Alin Cîrdei and Lucian Ispas

Abstract

The international security environment is marked by a certain state of anomy, which in reality does not conceal a state of chaos, but an attempt to restore and redesign spheres of influence, creating a new world order involving both state actors: the US, Russia, China India, supra-states actors: EU, NATO, etc or non-state actors. The European Union is confronted with a series of internal and external challenges that affect the state of security. Challenges are very diverse, difficult to anticipate and counteract, and can be attributed, on the one hand, to the cyclical evolution of society and, on the other hand, to intentional interventions using unconventional methods and means of hybrid type, which are aimed at destabilizing one of the most powerful supra-state structures, enjoying significant economic and political strength, which has a large population and can influence the evolution of events globally. Lately, EU countries have begun to tackle the most diverse issues, such as migration, terrorist threat, radicalization of a part of the population, supporting direct or indirect jihadist organizations, organizing attacks within the union, developing nationalism, separatism, ethnic or religious intolerance, etc.