The purpose of the paper is to clarify the situations when deviations from the rules of good conduct in scientific research are considered to be offenses. The paper, in the first part, it is focused on the idea of offence and it definition, because it is important to define this term in order to compare deviations and offences. In the second part, the paper refers to those situations when the deviations from the rules of good conduct in scientific research can become offences according to the Criminal Code. In addition, in the paper are analyse the regulation from art. 21 Law no. 206/2004 and some examples of situations when deviations can became offences. To complete this picture frame in conclusions we propose some changes of the current legislations.