The paper will refer only to one of period of Hallstatt, Middle Hallstatt, an important period of the first Iron Age – that form with Late Hallstatt a unity called by historian the protohistory of the Dacians – bringing important transformations recorded in the human beings’ habitat. The settlements and buildings of the entire Bronze Age reflect the continuation of migrations, though limited, by their sedentarization, but also the fortification of some settlements which became real centres of unions of tribes. The characteristic to the mentioned period is continuity (and then the ending) of the process of unification of the Thracian tribes, a process began in Early Hallstatt. The collision of tribes needed the amplification of settlements, but also of the fortifications and also, step by step, the extending of the Greek urbanism implemented in today’s Dobrogea by the Greeks who started colonies here, the Scythian-Greek incluences are to be found in the Late Hallstatt and in other areas on the nowadays territory of our country. The specificity of settlements and buildings of the cultures from the beginning of Hallstatt on the territory of our country will be studied in their evolution towards the next phase – of the second period of the Iron Age: Latène.
The present paper will refer to an aspect of processing metals on the territory of Romania, in Bronze Age and Iron Age (the second age habing been studied up to the moment when Prehistory ended: 1st century B.C., being continued by Antiquity). Unfortunately, few pieces were found in settlements and in necropoleis, so it is difficult to attribute the artifacts of the Metal Age to one or other of the existing cultures, though the region where they were produced can be mentioned. Consequently, their study can lead to another classification than the chronological one, and that is of the field of ornamental arts in metal. We will focus only on two types of objects that embellish the neck and the chest: necklaces and pendants, which help us create a vivid image of this important artistic field of the Iron Age on the territory of our country, these two joining the other important types of jewels: bracelets, rings, fibulae, phaleras.
The present study will only refer to the Early Hallstatt, Ha A-B, the beginning of the first Iron Age brought important transformations recorded in ceramics, once the production forces started to develop because of the spreading of iron metallurgy. In a time when ceramics suffers major transformations regarding forms and decor – we are talking here about the first period of Hallstatt (the early one) – the Hallstatt Complex with incised and engraved ceramics completes the image of pottery at that time, together with the other great cultural unity (the horizon with fluted ceramics).
This study will only deal with the Neolithic period which we distinguish from the Eneolithic one in the sense that in this period man only used tools made of stone and later on, in Eneolithic (Chalcolithic), he started using copper. In its first period, the Neolithic has new characteristics as a result of the progress of human communities; thus, as opposed to the Palaeolithic, man starts a new period with changed “clothes”. Firstly, man now starts to create and appreciate beauty as the Palaeolithic art did not have aesthetic purposes. But an important transformation regards the habitat, Neolithic settlements and buildings reflecting the increasing stability of communities, thus taking a step forward from Palaeolithic and their evolution to the higher levels of the future society, the Eneolithic one.
This material refers to one of the many transition periods from the History of Art on the territory of Romania - that is the period which separates Paleolithic from Neolithic: Epi-Paleolithic, with its endcalled (and accepted, first of all!) by some researchers: Mesolithic. As we will see, we will refer to the art of this moment of great complexity and diversity. From an artistic pointof view, Epi-Paleolithic already has tools which can be placed in the category of technical beauty, as far as form is concerned, precision becomes more and more important,and also the skillfulness of their production and the delicate, refined finishing; also connected to the artistic side of the period, the interest for beauty for creating geometrical-abstract decorations increases, obviously becoming a coherent ornamental motif. In the final phase of Epi-Paleolithic, the Mesolithic period comes with an art which is different from the one of the culture Schela Cladovei, characterized by ornaments with simple geometrical motifs, liniar incisions, oblique or in a network, this geometry leading to the main compositional textures of decoration of the oldest phase of the future Neolithic culture Criș.
Introduction: Polygonum convolvulus L. (black bindweed), syn. Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve, Polygonaceae family is a plant from the spontaneous flora, spread from the plain zone up to the subalpine zone. The objectives of our researches are the qualitative and quantitative determination of polyphenolic compounds from Polygoni convolvuli herba and the choice of the adequate solvent for obtaining an active pharmacological extract.
Method: The qualitative exam consisted of phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography. The quantitative determination of the total polyphenols was made through the Folin-Ciocâlteu method.
Results: The flavonoids, the anthocyanins, the tannins and the phenol carboxylic acids (phytochemical screening) were emphasized and the following compounds were identified: rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitroside, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and caffeic acid.
Conclusions: In order to establish the technological lab process for obtaining an active pharmacological extract standardized in total polyphenols the adequate solvent is ethanol 50% (v/v).
Autophagy, a homeostatic process involved in nutrient regeneration and immune responses, may be involved in intracellular killing of M. tuberculosis. Several studies linked variation in autophagy genes with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, but others did not confirm these findings.
We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ATG5 (rs2245214, c.574-12777G>C) and NOD2 (rs2066844, c.2104C>T) genes for 256 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 330 unrelated healthy controls in Romania. Both SNPs have been reported as relevant for the autophagy process and potentially for susceptibility to active pulmonary tuberculosis.
In our study, the polymorphisms in ATG5 and NOD2 were not associated with tuberculosis. This suggests that the two genetic variants we focused on are not related to the risk for developing active TB in a Romanian population.