Since 2007, Romania has been under the under the glance of experts in the European Union, but also under the strict monitoring of the NBR and also under the pressure of citizens and investors' expectations about the moment of euro adoption. My research concerns have also been channeled to this point of maximum interest, impact and timeliness, which is why I have proposed through this paper to highlight a synthetic situation regarding the fulfillment of the convergence criteria from the moment of accession to the European Union, to the present. The objective of this paper is to reflect, in dynamics and correlation, the degree of fulfillment of the nominal and real convergence criteria, the sustainability of the levels achieved for certain indicators, so necessary for joining the single currency, without shocks. Romania is a country subject to frequent fluctuations at all levels: economic, political, legislative, also reflected in the fluctuations in meeting the convergence criteria. The lack of medium and long-term sustainability of the criteria considered necessary for joining the euro area will make this desiderate ever more remote.
The Romanian banking sector, predominantly governed by the capital of foreign banks, is, as well as other international banking sectors, under the sign of the necessary balance that should exist between risk and performance. This is a result of banks trying to take risks that they can control, given that they need to generate financial results that are satisfactory for all categories of bank creditors, namely shareholders, depositors and other lenders. In this paper, I wanted to analyze the risk situation assumed by the main banks in the system versus the performance gained in recent years. This article is part of a wider research, so I will refer only to the main risk assumed by a bank, namely the credit risk, I will highlight the evolution of the indicators of this risk, so that I can finally analyze their degree of correlation with indicators for measuring bank performance. The situation of other financial risks in banking activity will be addressed in other works.
The banking system has undergone several transformations since its beginning up to now, some as a result of adapting to customers’ requirements that have become increasingly sophisticated, and others as a result of the economic and political contexts that have passed, which again – have required its adaptation. Regardless of the situation, the banks have undergone a large digitization process, a process that is now in progress and which in the coming years can cause a significant change in the banking we knew about 10-15 years ago. Through this paper, I propose to analyse the situation of the banking system in terms of adapting to these challenges, at the level of Romania, in the context of the current situation at global and European level, in order to highlight both the progress achieved and the gap in comparison to the other countries, much more competitive from this perspective.
The banking system in Romania is a banking system under development, subject to fluctuations that exist on the market more than on more developed banking systems, fluctuations that can generate losses for banks if they are not properly managed. The losses that may be generated by these fluctuations, known as market risk, refer to the significant fluctuations in three indicators, namely the interest rate, the exchange rate and the asset price. In this article, I will analyse the interest rate risk from a conceptual point of view and the indicators that mitigate this risk. The analysis also contains a study of this risk among commercial banks in the system to highlight the level of risk and possible effects of its manifestation. I calculated and analysed the interest rate risk indicators, individually for the first three banks in the system, but also to comparatively, in order to highlight the existing differences.