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  • Author: Ioan Sabin Sopa x
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Background: Some specialists have said that leaders are born, some said that they are made, but regardless of what you believe, finding the right leader can be very important to a sport team performance. The leader can be chosen by the coach, but is not always accepted by the team. So, we believe that it is important for the leader of the team to be elected by the members of the group; knowing the relationships between the members of a group can help build strong connections and good group cohesion.

Aim: The present study evaluates the connections within a volleyball team, establishing the sympathy relationships, mutual choice or rejection between players. These relationships can reveal our group dynamics, structure and hierarchy, so after analyzing those factors we can determine the group leader, the marginalized individuals and group cohesion and status of each member in the team. We also tried to find out if the formal leader named by the coach matches the leader of the group and if improving the relationships within our volleyball team and finding the right leader can improve the performance of our team. The group included 12 mini volleyball players, aged 10-12, that play in the women’s national youth championship.

Methods: We used the observational method, the survey method and the socio-metric test.

Results: The results of our research showed that the socio-metric test confirmed our presumptions and we can see that leaders of our group are DC (3), with a social index of 1, and GI (5), with a social index of 0.55. The cohesiveness of our group is good, with 7 mutual election and 5 mutual rejections, the coefficient of group cohesion is 0.11, and the Index of group cohesion is 0.03.

Conclusions: The conclusions of our study showed that our group has the right leader and good cohesiveness.


Physical education classes, at primary school level, are based on developing psychomotor skills, out of which the most important are coordination and speed. At this age, skills like coordination, speed or the two combined, namely agility, are developed the best. Agility is an important characteristic of motor development, a quality needed to maintain and control body position while changing direction.

Our study focuses on a primary school class that practices physical education and we tried to see how they develop their combined coordination and speed skills. We choose to use a set of six agility tests that analyze the main components of agility like speed of movement, lateral movement, balance, coordination: Illinois Agility, Agility T-test, Agility Cone, Box Drill, AFL Agility, Arrowhead agility test and so on. After using some specific programs to develop speed and coordination we used the same tests and saw the improved results. We had two groups that we worked with, first group, the experimental group, included 16 students (age 10±1.3 years; body mass 40.3±5.4 kg; body height 142.3±5.1); the control group, included 19 students (age 10±1.6 years; body mass 43.6±3.4 kg; body height 138.5±4.7).

Results showed that the experimental group developed skills like speed, coordination and agility easier than the other group. Statistically significant differences were determined within the experimental group both in the initial and in the final tests (p<0.05), also significant differences were discovered between the experimental and the control group in the final measurement (p<0.05).

Conclusions. The Hypothesis of this study was confirmed - participation of young children in special programs for developing agility skills can prove to be very constructive for their future by developing skills like speed, coordination, lateral movement etc.


Nowadays sports success has become more than improving technique, medicine has long been a complementary science technology that improved sports performance. In our study we analyzed the importance of functional training in the military pentathlon at the 50 m swimming with obstacles. The scientific methods used were the observation method and also the experiment method in which we tested two samples of military students both consisted in 30 students with the age between 18-22 years old, the first group were the experiment group that practice the military pentathlon and the second group – the control group – were simple military students. The results showed significant statistical differences between the experiment group compared with the control group at the final testing, the students from the experiment group had better results in the respiratory rate and vital capacity both compared with the control group and also between the initial and final test. Conclusions of the research showed that the training program implemented at the experiment group has improved significant from the initial to the final test and also compared with the control group.


The following research started from the idea that correcting the crawl swimming style could help improve the performance of military students in the 50 m swimming with obstacles at the military pentathlon. Alongside with other specialists in the military pentathlon and swimming coaches we have elaborated a scoring grid for every error that can occure in the 50 m swimming with obstacle event. The methods used for evaluating was the scoring grid errors for 50 m swimming with obstacles, the observation method and also the experiment method. We had two samples in our research, the first group was the experiment group that was formed by 30 students with the age between 18-22 years old components of the military pentathlon team, and the second group, the control group, formed by 30 students with same age. The results of our investigation showed that the experiment group had improved statistical significant differences compared with the control group proving the necessity of using a scorring grid for the 50 m obstacle swimming in the military pentathlon.

The conclusions of the investigation showed that through the specific scoring system, the experts’ assessment certifies the viability of the new analytical curriculum introduced into student planning program within the experimental group.


Leisure sport activities have an important role inmaintaining health and physical fitness at adults, but also being more and more used for different other reasons like socialization, communication, making new friends and relationships, self-image, challenge etc. Our study focused on finding the main necessities of adults regarding leisure sport activities, discovering the real reasons of practicing sport activities in their free time. So, using the questionnaire method, we asked 204 adults of their real necessities regarding leisure sport activities and why they practice specific sports in their free time. The results showed that different sports are practiced for different necessities, so the practitioners of volleyball game highlighted the necessities of socialization and communication, the football practitioners had chosen movement and competition necessities as main reasons for practicing sport, basketball players elected affiliation and maintain health necessities as primordial, fitness or gym practitioners affirmed that main reasons for practicing sport activities are self-image and satisfaction necessities. The conclusions of the study were that indifferent of the sport that is practiced, leisure sport activities contributes in fulfilling the adult necessities and is an important way of maintain physical, social and psychological progress


Quality of sleep developed to be a much disputed subject in everyday life performance of men. Our study focuses on comparing two samples one of non-sportive (formed by 42 students’ age 19 ± 1.22 years) and one of professional athletes (formed by 45 sportive age between 18 ± 2.01 years). The main method used for analyzing the quality of sleep between the two samples of the research was the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) that is a tool that analyses sleep behaviors, identify disorder in sleeping routine and determine the frequency of difficulties with sleep before and after events, competitions or intense training programs.

The results of the study showed a statistically significant differences between the two samples in the number of hours slept at night (the experiment sample having 8 to 9 hours of sleep compared with the control sample that have 6 to 7 hours); also we found differences between the time needed to fall asleep (less than 15 min at the experiment group compared with 31-60 min at the control group); less problems at sleeping in the experiment group compared with the control group and that the athletes from the experiment group are waking earlier and are a morning kind of persons compared with the control group that are more active at evening; also found differences at the caffeine doses consumed and usage of electronic devices before sleep time (the experiment have less cases compared with the control group). So the general conclusion of the study was that the level of satisfaction regarding the quality of sleep is higher at the experiment sample compared with the control sample.


In the present study, we tried to discover the values or the effects considered essential for the development of positive attitudes in practicing motor activities by students. The study had as main research method the survey and the research sample included a total of 100 students from the “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu. Research findings showed that students are aware of the beneficial effects of motor activities both on the biological, psychological and socio-cultural level. Gender differences show that opinions are divided, male students consider the physical and social effects as most important assets developed by the motor activities, while feminine students consider exponential for the motor activities effects, the mental and sanogenic effects.


The main focus of the research was to discover the cohesion of our team and to find the leader of our volleyball group. The research sample was composed of 12 players with aged between 10 and 12 years old that play for CSM Bucharest at mini-volleyball level. The main research methods used was the sociometric survey method which aimed to find the elections and rejections in our group and to discover the hierarchy of every player in the team. The results showed that we had 8 mutual elections and 4 mutual rejections in our group, and an index of cohesion of 0.06 with a coefficient of cohesion of 0.12 that showed us that our volleyball team is cohesive and united, the group leaders were player SS (8) with a preferential status index of 0.67 and at the second position we find player EG (5) with a preferential status index of 0.25. Conclusions have shown that the research hypothesis was valid, so we can affirm that using the sociometric survey method we can determine the group cohesion and find the right leader of our group.


Nowadays, firefighting is becoming more and more demanding with a lot of natural disasters and disasters caused by men, the firefighters must be very well prepared for rapid and efficient intervention, physical training has become one of the key skills that an emergency intervention employee must have. Our research paper is focused on the athletic preparation of firefighting in the ladder climbing competition. The research experimental group was formed by 10 males with age of 30 ± 3.5 years old with experience in this kind of competitions between 2 and 7 years. We highlighted the intervention plan and training and their effects on the results of our athletes and also analyze the efficiency of developing motor qualities such as strength, speed, resistance, and coordination. The results show relatively good improvements in the performance time at all 10 athletes and also in the motor qualities level. Conclusions of our research present the efficiency of training athletic skills and also the motor qualities in obtaining better results at the ladder climbing competition.


Sports activities and disseise prevention is a nowadays worldwide discussed problem, many specialists embraced the idea that physical activities can develop and maintain the health of human body. Our study was focused on finding the habits of a group of students from the University “Lucian Blaga” from Sibiu regarding physical activities, types of sports activities practiced in leisure time, student’s concept about the values and importance of practicing sports activities and so on.

The main method of research was the lifestyle health questionnaire through which we investigated some aspects regarding sports activities influence on the level of health. We choose a sample of 300 students from all three years of study from different faculties from our university.

The results of our investigation showed that students are aware of the positive influence of sports activities on human body.