Li-Chun Zhang, Ingvild Johansen and Ragnhild Nygaard
There is generally a need to deal with quality change and new goods in the consumer price index due to the underlying dynamic item universe. Traditionally axiomatic tests are defined for a fixed universe. We propose five tests explicitly formulated for a dynamic item universe, and motivate them both from the perspectives of a cost-of-goods index and a cost-of-living index. None of the indices that are currently available for making use of scanner data satisfies all the tests at the same time. The set of tests provides a rigorous diagnostic for whether an index is completely appropriate in a dynamic item universe, as well as pointing towards the directions of possible remedies. We thus outline a large index family that potentially can satisfy all the tests.
Ingvild Bergom Lunde, Mette Sagbakken and R. Elise B. Johansen
Based on fieldwork among Kurds in Norway, this article explores how participants described the presence of female genital cutting (FGC) in Kurdistan as a difficult topic to address in public. Perceptions of how FGC should be addressed ranged from acknowledging and directly confronting it to silencing and rejecting it as a Kurdish practice. The participants associated FGC with a “traditional mindset” and perceptions of female sexuality that did not readily fit into new ideologies of women’s liberation. Based on literature on how to manage a “difficult” characteristic in national identity construction, we argue that the participants’ negotiation of “modern” and “traditional” aspects of national identity is one strategy for dealing with FGC. FGC has the potential for spoiled national identity. However, we find reason to suggest that a condemnation of the practice based on women’s liberation may strengthen the aspects of Kurdish national aspirations that are grounded in human rights and gender equality.