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  • Author: Inetta Nowosad x
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The article addresses the ambiguity in understanding school culture and its potential research implications. The analyses were embedded within two key approaches: normative and descriptive, illustrating selected exemplifications of theoretical positions of school culture in German-speaking countries. Also, the potential for integration of both approaches into a new model of school culture was proposed by La Tefy Schoen and Charles Teddi in 2008, which terminated the separation between descriptive and normative approaches to school culture.


The article focuses on changes introduced in Taiwan’s education since 1949, which reflect the social changes taking place in this country. Special attention is drawn to the origin and the course of two particularly important processes, i.e. democratisation and taiwanisation, which have radically changed the face of education, revealing Taiwan’s ‘balancing’ between the East and the West. While depicting their essence, also complex links with Taiwan’s policies towards China and its orientation onto economic growth were taken into account.


The aim of the article was to analyse the policy of gender equality in Germany, here centered around the specifics of the function of (fe)male preschool teachers, which at its source was a profession directed exclusively at women, and as a result is now feminised. These circumstances, unchanged for almost 200 years, have their roots in disregard towards this professional group in the political discourse, apparent in it being treated as “invisible”. Current governmental policies aim at supporting the employment of men at the preschool educational level. The article analyses the federal government’s gender policy through the prism of centrally supported model projects implemented in Germany since 2010, taking into account the broad context of preconditions. General issues present in social debates (such as gender) have been linked in this article to the specifics of a particular professional group of ErzieherIn, such as the rise of the rank of early care and education combined with serious staff shortages hindering the implementation of political guidelines. As a result, these two groups of conditions intertwine, forming a very interesting image, in which tradition gives way to contemporary social expectations.


The article attempts to analyze transitions which have occurred in education system in Poland during last years. The authors reveal numerous changes of the system on the basis of various reports, research results, public speeches and legal acts which have been put into practice. These changes are shown from teachers’, pupils’ and parents’ point of view, and are corrected through the prism of social expectations. Moreover, the dilemmas of contemporary teacher are revealed, as well as expectations of the society which participates in constantly transforming reality of global world.