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Elod Nagy, Imre Zoltan Kun and Piroska Kelemen


Background: there is an overt bias between cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in male and female patients. Research of the past decades postulated that this difference could be due to the lipid-lowering effect of male sexual-steroids, that show decreased values in cardiovascular disease.

Methods: the aim of our study was to determine total serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) on a peripheral arterial disease patient’s cohort (n=35), in comparison with a healthy control group, (n=23) and to establish correlations with other biological risk factors like serum lipids, C-reactive protein, plasma fibrinogen, and the ankle-brachial pressure index.

Results: our results showed that total serum testosterone and DHEA-S were significantly decreased in PAD patients in comparison to the control group. We could not observe any significant correlation with the presence of critical ischemia, the levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), C-reactive protein or plasma fibrinogen.

Conclusion: these results express that low androgen levels could be implicated in the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease, but testosterone and DHEA-S are not markers of disease severity. The elucidation of their exact role needs larger, population-based studies.

Open access

Anna David, Imre Zoltán Kun, Gábor Nyírő, Zsuzsánna Szántó and Attila Patócs


Introduction: Isolated Short Stature Homeobox (SHOX) gene haploinsufficiency can be found in 2-15% of individuals diagnosed with idiopathic short stature determining different skeletal phenotypes.

Case presentation: We present the history of an 11-year-old female patient diagnosed with idiopathic short stature. Clinically, she was moderately disproportionate, with cubitus valgus and palatum ogivale. Her breast development was in Tanner stage 1 at the time of diagnosis. The endocrine diagnostic tests did not reveal any abnormalities except a slightly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone. We have also assessed the bone radiological findings. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification technique used for the identification of SHOX gene haploinsufficiency showed a heterozygous deletion spanning exons 4-5 of SHOX gene.

Conclusions: This case is determined by deletions in exons 4-5 of SHOX gene and indicates the necessity of screening for SHOX deletions in patients diagnosed with idiopathic short stature, especially in children having increased sitting height-to-height ratio or decreased extremities-to-trunk ratio.

Open access

László-István Bába, Zsolt Gáll, István Lóránt Bíró, Tibor Mezei, Imre Zoltán Kun and Melinda Kolcsár


This study aims to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment on preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) expression in subcutaneous, visceral and brown adipose tissues, and on the size of vacuoles in a dipocytes obtained from the perirenal regions in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were treated with FLX at two different doses and fourteen animals received vehicle. After 40 days of treatment, the subcutaneous, perirenal and interscapular adipose tissues were collected. Pref-1 expression was examined using an immunohistochemical method and the vacuolar area was measured in stained sections. In the low dose FLX group, the size of vacuoles increased both in male and female animals. The high dose of FLX also induced a significant increase of vacuole size, but only in male animals. Neither of the two doses of FLX has significantly affected the Pref-1 expression in any type of adipose tissue.